INTRODUCTION OF CHEMICAL REACTION A chemical reaction is a process in which one set of chemical substances (reactants) is converted into another (products). It involves making and breaking chemical bonds and the rearrangement of atoms. Chemical reactions are represented by balanced chemical equations, with chemical formulas symbolizing reactants and products. A chemical equation is a way to describe what goes on in a chemical reaction, the actual change in a material. Chemical equations are written with the symbols of materials to include elements, ionic or covalent compounds, aqueous solutions, ions, or particles.
Chemistry 11 | The Decomposition Reaction of Baking Soda, NaHCO3 | Oscar ShiPeriod 2Laboratory AssignmentDue Date: 2011/4/14 | Introduction The objective of this experiment is to find the actual chemical equation that governs the manner in which baking soda (sodium hydrogen carbonate NaHCO3) decomposes. When NaHCO3 is heated, it decomposes to produce a gas and leaves behind a solid. Two possible equations for the decomposition are: NaHCO3 (s) + heat NaOH (s) + CO2 (g) NaHCO3 (s) + heat ½ Na2OH3 (s) + ½ H2O (g) + ½ CO2 (g) Materials and Methods * electronic balance * sodium hydrogen carbonate * ring * ring stand * crucible tongs * crucible * crucible lid * clay triangles The Procedure of the Laboratory 1. Put on safety goggles and a lab apron. 2.
Purification By Crystallization Experiment perf: 6/25/12 Report submitted: 7/2/2012 Abstract: In this crystallization experiment we were trying to separate a crystalline solid from a reaction mixture that had impurities. We accomplished this by dissolving our solution which was Acetanilide in a solvent. After the mixture was boiled, we then added decolorizing charcoal to help remove the colored impurities. Once this mixture was hot enough we transferred it into another beaker by using a funnel and then let it cool off. When our filtered solution started to cool off over time crystals started to form.
Extracting the metal from the solution is the first step in the process of hydrometallurgy. A great way to do extraction is leaching, in which the ore is dissolved into an acid or base. Then the leached solution is purified and the waste can be discarded. Lastly the metal is precipitated through chemical or electrolytic processes. This lab will also rely on some skills and techniques that were utilized in previous experiments, such as the using of amphoteric metals, amphoteric hydroxide solutions, and complex ion formation.
EXTRACTION: DETERMINATION OF ITS EFFICIENCY AND CALCULATION OF THE DISTRIBUTION COEFFICIENT Group#4: Wassim Abdel Naby and Bianca Francisco Bachelor of Science degree in Chemistry De La Salle University ABSTRACT The objective of this experiment is to demonstrate the concepts of extraction and to calculate the distribution coefficient. In the process of extraction, amount of acetic acid was the one to be determined, and this was done through the process of titration, indicator used was phenolphthalein and the titrant used was Sodium hydroxide. First, 20 ml aliquot portion of diluted acetic acid in a 125 mL Erlenmeyer flask titrated with Sodium hydroxide. Next, the second flask containing another 20 mL of acetic acid extracted by 20 mL portion toluene, this was done twice due to over titration in the first trial. Lastly, the third 20 mL aliquot portion acetic acid underwent the same procedures with flask 2 but this time with two 10 mL portions of toluene.
4. Using your definition of substance, classify the following as either a pure substance or a mixture a. ocean water b. air c. granite d. wood e. wine f. liquid nitrogen Part of studying chemistry is being able to form pictures in your mind of what matter looks like on an atomic or molecular level – picturing what kinds of atoms or molecules a particular substance is made of. We can classify the substance based on what types of atoms and molecules it’s made of. We use these images as a way of representing substances. Consider the drawings below: These images show methane molecules (CH4) in each of the three states of matter: solid, liquid, and gas.
Simple and Fractional Distillation of Cyclohexane and Toluene Purpose: The purpose of this experiment was to become familiar with the processes of simple and fractional distillation. In this experiment a mixture of two volatile compounds, cyclohexane and toluene, were separated with the process of distillation. Distillation relies on each compound having distinct and separate boiling points. The pure products were analyzed with gas chromatography to determine the success of the distillation. Introduction: Distillation is the process of heating a liquid until it boils, then condensing and collecting the resulting hot vapors.
The chart of reactivity tells chemists the comparable reactivity of elements. An element higher on the list is more reactive than the elements below it and can replace all elements below it. Overall, knowing the types of reactions and reactivity of elements both help predict products of a reaction. It is only with an understanding of these principles can one execute the Copper Cycle Experiment, for the experiment requires a good understanding of how mass can be altered via these reactions, but never destroyed. The experiment was performed to evaluate the skills of an individual to perform some lab skills like filtration and decantation and use these skills to understand the concept of percent yield.
Steam Distillation: The isolation of limonene 1. Purpose The purpose of the experiment is to be familiar with the use of steam distillation, to learn how to extract an organic solvent and remove a volatile liquid by a rotary evaporator, and to determine the purity of the limonene. Steam distillation was used because it is a special type of distillation especially for temperature sensitive materials. Dichloromethane was used to extract the aqueous mixture. Magnesium sulfate was used to absorb water and simple filtration was used to remove magnesium sulfate.
The purpose of the lab was to determine which reactant was the limiting reactant, and to see how much of the other reactant was used. The true molarity of a compound can be defined as the amount of moles per liter of that substance. The equation of this single displacement chemical reaction done during this lab is 2Al(s) + 3CuCl(aq) → 3Cu (s) + 2AlCl2 (aq). In the reaction, the solid Aluminum replaces the Copper in Copper (II) Chloride to produce solid copper, and Aluminum Chloride. In order to find which reactant is the limiting reactant, an equation based on the molarity of the Copper (II) Chloride may be used, or the products of the reaction may be observed.