This allows more chloride ions to enter the neuron, making it even more resistant to excitation. This results in a reduction of the brains excitatory and makes the person calmer. Beta blockers work by reducing the activity of adrenaline and noradrenaline which are part of the beta receptors on the cell of the heart and other parts of the body which are usually stimulated during arousal. By blocking the receptor sites, they can cause a reverse effect of stress hormones, causing the heart to beat more slowly and with less force. The action of beta blockers results in a fall in blood pressure and therefore less stress on the heart.
They receive the drug L-Dopa to increase levels of dopamine. If too much L-Dopa is given to Parkinson patients then it has been shown to trigger schizophrenic tendencies. In addition to this the drug chlorpromazine is given to schizophrenics to reduce symptoms. The drug works by binding to D2 receptors and reduce dopamine. The drug is effective.
When the body detects stress, the SNS is activated which leads to raised heart rate, which leads to higher blood pressure which can lead to Chronic Heart Disease, heart attack, stroke etc. The Beta Blocker is taken then and it acts by reducing activity of adrenaline and noradrenaline and also binds to the receptors of the heart and other areas of the body stimulated by arousal. As a result of blocking these receptors, it is therefore harder to stimulate them and so the heart beat is slowed, and therefore lower blood pressure. A strength of drug treatment is that they are proven to be affective, for example Kahn et al tested 250 participants over 8 weeks, and found that BZs were better than a placebo. The drugs are also very quick and easy to use, and do not require extra effort or stress that could be incurred using other, longer methods of stress management.
ph-7.35-7.45 Pco2-35-45mm Hg 5. Describe what happened to the pH and the carbon dioxide in the blood with hyperventilation. The ph rises above 7.45 and the co2 is removed from the blood faster than it is produced 6. Explain how returning to normal breathing after hyperventilation differed from hyperventilation without returning to normal breathing. When returning to normal breathing the breathing slows until homeostasis is returned.
Because myoglobin releases oxygen to the mitochondria when needed for ATP production there would be less ATP. If there is less ATP then the contraction of muscles would also be less and slower. Muscle fatigue may also become present. 3) What might occur if lactic acid did not “burn” when it accumulated in a muscle cell? Would there be an overall negative side effect?
Some drugs work by increasing the levels of neurotransmitter as low levels of serotonin are thought to cause depression so SSRI drugs such as Prozac are used to block the re-uptake pump in the synapse. This reduces the rate of re-absorption therefore increasing serotonin levels by allowing more serotonin to attach to receptors. Other drugs such as anti-psychotics block the post-synaptic receptor sites so that not as much dopamine can cross the synapse. This relieves the symptoms of schizophrenia by decreasing excessive dopamine levels. Many drug treatments are cost effective, easy to use and there is much evidence to show that drugs can be effective in a range of psychological disorders, such as up to 70 per cent of depressed people respond to drug therapy.
| This medication will lower your blood pressure. | This lowers blood pressure and heart rate. | This will decrease extra fluid from your body leading to lower blood pressure and less edema | This is a heart medication, it will slow the heart rate. | What should I do before I take this medication? | Rotate the site of this patch daily.
2. Explain how fosinopril works – include in your answer what physiological process the drug acts on and how it modifies this process. Normally in the body, the kidneys are able to assist in blood pressure regulation via the renin-angiotensin system, a system that regulates blood pressure and fluid balance. As blood pressure declines, renin enzymes are able to convert angiotensinogen into angiotensin I. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) then converts angiotensin I into angiotensin II, a powerful vasoconstrictor which also stimulates sodium reabsorption. As sodium ions attract water, water is also retained which increase blood volume and therefore blood pressure (Marieb & Hoehn, 2012).