However, increased levels of dopamine stimulated by amphetamines have shown an increase in aggression whereas antipsychotic drugs that reduce dopamine levels have been shown to reduce violent behaviour (Lavine and Buitelaar). Interestingly, a study by Couppis and Kennedy (2008) using mice, found that dopamine acts as a positive reinforcer in the response to an aggressive event. This would
This shows support as a high optimum level of nicotine is needed in order to avoid severe withdrawal symptoms. However one weakness surrounding this area is the issue of reductionism; the model is largely focused on the biological basis of addiction, ignoring social and environmental factors. Another weakness may be deterministic as individuals may have little or no control over their addictive behavior due to biology because some people may be genetically predisposed to their addictive behavior and therefore unable to regulate their behavior. There is also a research on biochemistry of the maintenance of smoking. Research has found that as nicotine increases dopamine release, it tends to provide a pleasurable and rewarding feeling that leads to maintenance.
Fibrates such as Lopid, Atromid, and Tricor are used to lower triglycerides, and can help raise HDL cholesterol. When used with statins, the side effect of fibrates is that it can increase your risk of muscle problems. 5. Ezetimibe lowers LDL cholesterol by blocking the intestine
However, Ecstasy is used medicinally to relieve victims of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It allows them to relive their depressing experiences more easily in order to overcome the disorder. More importantly, the drug lets the patients relieve their traumatic experiences without being overwhelmed, by activating the area of the brain responsible for controlling fear and stress. In the long-run, PTSD patients are able to reduce their fear. However, the negative side effects of ecstasy make it unlikely for the drug to become an official treatment of mood
Antidepressants on the other hand by balancing neurotransmitters such as serotonin and epinephrine witch can cause depression if not sufficiently balanced. Anxiolytic drugs are used to combat anxiety disorders one drug in this field is benzodiazepines (Bzs) they work by releasing more (GABA) witch slows down the nerve transmission calming people down. This drug is effective in areas such as phobias. Another biological therapy is ECT, it is a surgical based treatment commonly used on manic depressives who haven’t responded to antidepressants. This treatment is administrated to a patient by putting a patient into an unconscious state then passing a current of 0.6 amps through the brain.
Support for this theory is the effect of amphetamines. These drugs work by increasing the levels of dopamine. When the drugs given to a non- schizophrenic the individual has been found to develop schizophrenic-like symptoms, this therefore suggests that the increased dopamine levels is likely to be linked to the disorder. Furthermore patients with schizophrenia have been found to have symptoms worsen when they have taken amphetamines. Grilly had found people with Parkinson’s disease (low levels of dopamine) who were taking the drug L-dopa to raise their levels of dopamine were developing schizophrenic type symptoms.
Narcotic agonists-antagonists react with some opioid receptor sites to stimulate activity and block other opioid receptor sites. These drugs are not as addictive as pure narcotic agonists (p. 414). Narcotic antagonists, which work to reverse the effects of narcotics, are used to treat narcotic overdose or to reverse unacceptable adverse effects (p. 417). B) Describe the therapeutic actions, indications, contraindications, the most common adverse reactions, and important drug-drug interactions for a narcotic. The narcotic agonist act at specific opioid receptor sites in the CNS to produce analgesia, sedation, and a sense of well-being.
It is also an effective treatment as it aims to treat the cause of the problem as well as the symptoms. It can give clients a greater sense of control over themselves as well which can have much longer lasting benefits. Another advantage would be that it has no side-effects or harmful addictions attached etc. It is also voluntary and not invasive for example in drug treatment withdrawal symptoms may be distressing. Biofeedback can be used for an unlimited time, as it is not addictive in the way that BZ's (for example) can be (as they are only used for a maximum of four weeks to prevent this) so biofeedback is seen as more of a long term cure of stress.
As mentioned above, treatment with anti-depressants may precipitate a switch to mania, but may also increase cycle frequency (Leibenluft, 1997). There needs to be more studies done in this area to confirm and treat these problems. However, the most helpful of all treatments is document daily what the moods are upon taking the appropriate drugs (anti-depressant/ antimanic). This will aid in the search for a better cure or prevention for both the short- and long-term treatment. It is probably best to minimize the use of anti-depressants and to maximize the use of mood-stabilizing agents.
The three major categories of drugs are stimulants, depressants, and hallucinogens. Stimulants such as caffeine, cocaine, amphetamines, and nicotine speed up body processes, including autonomic nervous system functions like the heart and respiration rate. This increase in rate is accompanied by a sense of euphoria. Also all stimulants produce tolerance and withdrawal effects that correspond to the power of the drug. Depressants are drugs that slow are body’s function.