About 11,000 women will be diagnosed with cervical cancer and 3600 will die. (Atkinson) Cervical Cancer is cancer of the cervix, the lower narrow part of the uterus. The uterus is hollow, pear-shaped organ where a baby grows during a women’s pregnancy. (Facts) Morton 2 Merck began marketing Gardasil in 2006 after the Food and Drug Administration approved it for females ages 9 to 26. The vaccine is the first of its kind to build immunity against two strains of HPV, which lead to 70% of cervical cancer cases in the United States.
Skin cancer that forms in squamous cells is called squamos cell carcinoma. Skin cancer that forms in neuroendocrine cells is called neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin. The most common skin cancer is basal cell carcinoma. Skin cancer is the most common cancer in the United States. Over one million people in the U.S. are diagnosed with skin cancer every year.
Natalie Perez ITT Technical Institute GS1145 Ms. Faremouth April 4, 2014 Despite the availability of screening tests and early treatment, which have cut the death rates from cervical cancer in half since the early 1970s, cervical cancer remains the third most common gynecologic cancer in the United States. Worldwide, it’s the most common cause of death from a gynecologic cancer. Nearly half of all women diagnosed with cervical cancer are diagnosed at a late stage, with either locally or regionally advanced disease that’s harder to treat. (Shinn, 2004, p. 36) There are two types of cervical cancer. The first is squamous cell, which accounts for an outstanding 80-90% of all cervical cancer cases.
Basically, babies are particularly vulnerable in which the newspaper article stated that there are 40 % of deaths in children occur within the first months of life and more than 70 % in the first year of life. So, for the past ten years of struggle, the aim of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG’s), for the lessening of the child mortality has progressed due to the big drop in children under five dying, which is an overall progress in achieving the MDG 4. Since the year 1990, or the year in which the MDG goals has been formulated by Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon and the United Nations Inter Agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation, the global under five mortality rate has dropped 35 % from 88 deaths per 1000 live births to 57 in 2010. That is, 12 million in 1990 progressed to 7.6 million in 2010. In another sense, nearly 21000 children under five died every day in the year 2010- and that is a good status of about 12000 fewer a day compared to the chaotic year of 1990.
The focus of the literature review will be upon breast cancer and social support received, and the psychological consequences that social support has upon the coping adaptability of breast cancer patients. Breast cancer is now the number one cancer in the UK, each year more than forty five thousand women are diagnosed with this cancer, approximately one hundred and twenty five women a day, this does not include the three hundred men a year that are also diagnosed. According to figures published by the Office for National Statistics in 2002, the incidence of breast cancer in Britain has increased from an age-standardised rate of seventy-five per one hundred thousand in 1979, to one hundred and fourteen per one hundred thousand in 2001. In 1988, a Breast Screening Program was introduced in the UK; this led to a temporary increase in prevalence rates, for women aged 50-64 years. However, more women than ever before are surviving breast cancer, nine out of ten women diagnosed at stage one survive beyond five years.
Lung cancer is the deadliest form of cancer, with nearly 90% of patients dying within 2 years of diagnosis, in large part because it tends to be diagnosed late (Gulyn and Youssef, 2010). Signs and Symptoms Initial presentation of lung cancer, regardless of gender, tend to be nonspecific, as a chronic or new cough in 65% to 75% of cases, with 25% or more having a productive cough (Yoder, 2006). Since lung cancer often occurs in central airways it can also present as pneumonia and lymph enlargement; hemoptysis will occur in 20% to 30% of patients. Other symptoms include dyspnea , with 60% of patients developing it early and 65% developing it at some time during their illness (Yoder, 2006). About 50% of patients present initially with chest pain (Yoder, 2006).
Cervical cancer kills 4,000 women each year in the U.S. 90% of the cases of cervical cancer are attributable to the HPV virus. Why should we say no to a vaccine that can protect our children from a deadly disease? All girls between the ages of 9 to 14 years of age should be given the HPV vaccine. There are two (2) HPV vaccines, namely Gardasil and Cervarix. These vaccines prevent four (4) different types of HPV which together cause most cases of cervical cancer and genital warts.
But this is not the case once cancer will starts. The cells become abnormal and the old, damaged cells survive and continue to divide that may form into tumors. Many of the cancers form into solid tumors except for cancers of the blood. Cancerous tumors may be malignant, which can affect the surrounding tissues. Other cancer cells can metastasize on different parts of the body through blood and can form a new tumor.
In 2006 the U.S surgeon general concluded “The evidence is sufficient to infer a causal relationship between exposure to second hand smoke and sudden infant death syndrome.” Second hand smoke has been estimated to be associated with 430 SIDS deaths in the United States annually. Second hand smoke also causes respiratory diseases in both children and adults. In the U.S it is estimated that second hand smoke has been associated with between 150 000 and 300 000 lower respiratory tract infections in infants and children under 18 months of age, resulting in between 7 500 and 15 000 hospitalizations each year. Inhalation of second hand smoke causes asthma, bronchiolitis and an also increases the risk of developing tuberculosis if exposed to a carrier of the disease. Impaired respiratory function and
In 2009, in 40 states that reported to the CDC, 8,300 young people ages 13-24 reported having human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Nearly 19 million new cases of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are diagnosed each year and of those, nearly half are in young people ages 15-24 years old. In 2009 more than 400,000 girls between the ages of 15-19 years old gave birth (CDC, 2012). Contributing Factors It is difficult to pin-point factors that have lead to these astounding statistics. A Theory-Guided Systematic review of 69 published studies revealed that the top three indicators for this type of behavior were intention to have sex, the youths’ perception of norms and time alone with the opposite sex (Buhi & Goodson, 2007).