The most widely cited impact of welfare reform was the decline in the welfare caseload, according to Baiver (2002), the number of families receiving welfare fell by 56 percent between 1994 and 2000. However, the success of welfare reform cannot be determined solely on the decrease of welfare caseloads; more important is the question what has happened to the children and families who have left the welfare system? More than 40 studies conducted by states since 1996 showed that about 60 percent of the adults who left welfare were employed. More notable was national data from the census bureau showing that between 1993 and 2000 the percentage of low income, single mothers, with jobs, grew from 58 percent to nearly 75 percent. Employment among never married, the most disadvantaged and least educated subgroup of single mothers , grew from 44 percent to 66 percent an increase of 50 percent over the same period(Haskins, 2011).
A premature birth is a birth prior to the 37th week of gestation (Childbirth Health, 2014). Up to 13 percent of babies are born premature (Childbirth Health, 2014). In 2009, 8.2 percent of infants were born with low birth weight (Child Health USA, 2011). It would seem like in this era of encouraged availability of healthcare and easily accessible information that these percentages could be quickly decreased. The good news is that low birth weight is preventable.
Sociology is playing an important role in the alarming health disparities between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. Although statistics are slowly improving, currently Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people endure much poorer health outcomes than non-Indigenous Australians. For the 2005–2007 period, life expectancy at birth was estimated to be 67 years for Indigenous males and 73 years for Indigenous females, representing gaps of 11.5 and 9.7 years, respectively, compared with all Australians. In 2008, almost one-third of young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people (aged 16–24 years) had high or very high levels of psychological distress. Indigenous young people died at a rate 2.5 times as high as that for non-Indigenous young people Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children aged 0–14 years died at more than twice the rate of non-Indigenous children.
Also 37.2% of families in the US used this program. Another program to fight hunger and poverty is WIC. According to www.ers.usda.gov “The mission of the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) is to safeguard the health of low-income women, infants, and children up to age 5 who are at nutritional risk.” In the year 2000 WIC spent over $4 billion in fiscal cost. The rapid expansion of WIC went from 88,000 users per month in 1974 to 7.2 million in 2000. There are 49 million people facing the risk of poverty in the United States, but over 300 million people in the country are affected.
Complications of the disease include encephalitis, blindness and pneumonia. Pregnant women are at high risk for miscarriage or preterm birth. (CDC) Those highest at risk for the infection are unvaccinated young children, unvaccinated pregnant woman and individuals who are non-immune to the disease. In the year 2011, 158,000 deaths around the world were caused by the measles, mostly children under the age of five. (WHO) Every year it is
Despite the significant increase of sub-Saharan African childhood vaccinations, two and a half million deaths a year occur primarily in Africa and Asia (WHO, 2008). These deaths are caused by vaccine preventable diseases in children less than five years old (WHO, 2008). Despite the increase
After the implementation and licensure of the live measles vaccine in 1963 the number of cases significantly dropped by 1988 in the U.S... However, in 1989-1991, the number of cases began to rise. 55,000 cases were reported with 495 deaths reported from measles. This increase was blamed on preschool aged children who had not been vaccinated with one dose of vaccine. Outbreaks were also reported in children who had been given one dose of vaccine.
They compose 6.20% of the whole population in King County (Censures Viewers).The life expectancy has improved from 68years to 72years In the last few years although There has also been an increase in mortality from issues such as AIDS, liver diseases, heart issues, diabetes, homicide, stoke and alcohol issues. Half the adults are overweight resulting in high cholesterol and high blood pressure. Homicide has been seen the leading cause of death in young adults ages 15-24 from 1995-1997. A third of the children living in King County come from poverty, and one in five African American adults lack health insurance. Poverty and low social economic disadvantage has been a key factor in their poor health status (Plough,
There are also groups within a society who are vulnerable based on their low socioeconomic status, prominent among which are teenage mothers. Most teenage mothers are products of unplanned pregnancies, which force them out of school or other formal training institutions, imposing on them lives of adulthood for which they are not prepared. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2012) reported that Teen Pregnancy Prevention programs seem to be working such that, at a rate of 31.3 live births per 1000 women between ages 15-19 in United States, in 2011, it accounts for an 8% drop compared to 2010. However, teen pregnancy issue is still crucial that it remains one of CDC’s top six priorities. Lavin & Cox (2012) opined that the teen pregnancy is still a subject of public concern in United States despite the fact that the rate is declining every year.
Just in 2011 and 2012, the revolution has been responsible for 80% of civilian deaths. Child Mortality Child mortality, also known as under-5 mortality, is the probability of a child born in a specific year or period dying before reaching the age of five, if subject to age-specific mortality rates of that period. The child mortality rate is a leading indicator of the level of child health and overall development in countries. There are many factors, which have significant impact on the child mortality rate. Firstly, the intake of food varies, from a low just over 1,500 calories per