How significant was Mazzini in the growth of opposition to autocratic and foreign rule in Italy in the years 1831–49? (30) Mazzini was a republican nationalist who had a significant effect in the growth of anti-autocratic feeling in Italy. He had radical aims for the future of Italy and he envisioned unification. He was the first leader to indoctrinate in the minds of Italians a vision of political unification. Mazzini created the Young Italy society after the 1831 revolutions.
As described by Carl Friedrich, single party states are ‘crisis states.’ He believes this is so as single party states arise from periods of conflict, outcomes of wars, deep societal division or confusion. All of these factors leave a state vulnerable and allow for the population to be attracted to extreme measures or ideologies. One prominent reason for Mussolini’s successful bid for power is the attraction of the Fascist ideology. Founded by Mussolini in 1919, it was attractive to the Italian population who were tired of post-war unrest. Mussolini promised respite from their ‘feeble’ (AJP Taylor) government, as well as the return of law and order in Italy.
By 1815, the aims of these secret societies changed in the direction of driving out the Austrians and restoring old Monarchs. Consequently, these factors paved the way for revolts and armed the peasants with something they never had had before – power. In a large number, the masses could stand against the oppressive rule of the Austrians. Therefore, the events that followed in the years 1820 – 1849 were all underpinned by the resentment of this from Metternich and the importance he placed on controlling Italy. Metternich was the Austrian chancellor and saw the danger of Italian nationalism and the potentially threatening ideas that
“A political movement of the right, characterized by the use of systematic violence against political opponents and by the presence of a dominant charismatic leader, that emerged after World War I in a number of European countries primarily Italy and Germany.” (The West and the World, page 476.) Before you can attempt to differentiate the fascist forms of government in Germany and Italy, it is important to recognize how they were similar. Both had similar viewpoints in the sense that they believed their respective countries were special and needed the global respect that they deserved. Germany felt isolated because they had to admit they were wrong in World War I and had to pay retributions for their actions. Italy felt that they wanted to regain the glory they possessed during ancient Rome and wished to create a 20th century Italian Empire in the Mediterranean.
Long running weaknesses within the original political system aided in developing support for Mussolini, along with his ability to change the party’s policies to accommodate all members of society. Although the war was important in allowing this rise in support for the PNF, it was not the only factor which played a part. After the land promised to Italy in the Treaty of London did not materialise, many Italians felt that their victory was one which had been ‘mutilated’. Orlando, Italy’s Prime Minister had failed to fight for the promised land during the signing of the Treaty of Versailles at the Paris Peace Conference, leaving Italy bitter towards its own government. Prominent socialist at the time D’Annunzio led some 2000 soldiers into the city of Fiume in defiance of the Italian Government.
In fact, unemployment in Italy rose and economic situation worsened. Many of his economic policies failed because of the regime that was inefficient and corrupt. Although Mussolini failed in many aspects of his rule, he was more successful than Hitler with his religious policy after his agreement with the Pope in 1929. Mussolini was aware of the influence that the Church had on people. So with the Lateran Treaty in 1929 Italy recognized Vatican as a sovereign state, accepted the Catholicism as the official state religion and in return Pope recognized the kingdom of Italy.In Italy, monarchy still remained and though Mussolini ignored king Emmanuel, the king played a role in Mussolini's fall, when he was able to announce Mussolini's dismissal and order his arrest.
Benito Mussolini came to power in 1922 after many years of hardship and bad leadership within Italy after world war I. A combination of the weakness of the Liberals, who were in control at this time and the strength of the Fascist regime quickly catapulted Mussolini to great power. When Mussolini marched on Rome the Italian king failed to use military force to stop him, as a result of this the Liberals quit their position as the leading government and the Fascist stepped in. Once in parliament the liberals supported Mussolini , this in turn allowed Mussolini to manipulate laws and very quickly become a dictator of Italy. Once in control Mussolini had to act fast to try to gain and keep complete control of Italy.
Italy developed and succeeded through city-state power, whereas nobility controlled Northern Europe. The arts were supported in Italy, but in Northern Europe the arts were financed by the church and monarchs. The art of the Italian Renaissance and the Northern European Renaissance was bright and natural. Italian artists were more inclined to work on sculptures, architecture, and paintings. Northern European artists produced art through tapestries, manuscripts, and furniture.
Different theories include the political structure of Florence, the patronage of its most dominant family, the Medici, and the migration of Greek scholars and texts to Italy following the fall of Constantinople at the hands of the Ottoman Turks. When examining two different pieces of art, the obvious major differences are seen first. In this case, it would be Michelangelo’s David, which was sculpted in the nude, whereas Bernini’s David is clothed. This is quite distinctive of the Renaissance period. In that time frame, artists such as Michelangelo focused more on the art of the body than say, Bernini (who was one of the more important artists of the
“"Fascism" was the ideology of the movement that, under the leadership of Benito Mussolini, seized power in Italy in 1922 and held power until the Allied invasion of Italy in World War II” 18. “An attempt to provide fascism with a fully articulated theory was made by an Italian neo-Hegelian philosopher of some distinction, Giovanni Gentile, who was converted to fascism after Mussolini's coup.” 19. “But fascism equally opposed socialism, which preached class war and trade unionism and thus served only to divide the nation” 20. “Revolutionized society in such a way that the socialist critique was no longer relevant” 21. “Fascism's debts to the more extreme and fanatic elements of the nineteenth-century left wing” 22.