BIOS 255 WEEK 5 Lab 5 - Lymphatic System & Disease Resistance 1. Describe lymphatic system functions. The three major functions of the lymphatic system are: 1) It drains excess interstitial fluid from tissue spaces and return it to the blood. 2) It transports lipids and lipid-soluble vitamins absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract. 3) It carries out immune responses directed against particular microbes or abnormal cells.
Cardiac Cycle * The heart is a muscle that pumps blood throughout the body. Of course, the process is not quite that simple. The heart has four chambers, two on the right (right atrium and right ventricle) and two on the left (left atrium and left ventricle). The right side is responsible for accepting blood from the body and getting it to the lungs. The lungs add oxygen to the blood and remove carbon dioxide.
Nursing Interventions for Reducing the Stresses Experienced by Mechanically Ventilated Patients Teresa Perkins McKendree University Nursing Interventions for Reducing the Stresses Experienced by Mechanically Ventilated Patients Mechanically ventilated patients may experience increased levels of stress due to various environmental factors in the ICU. These include equipment/alarm noise, invasive nature of treatments and the inability to communicate verbally. These stressors can cause non-favorable effects such as increased anxiety levels which can subsequently lead to somatic reactions such as tachycardia, dyspnea, increased blood pressure and patient-ventilator dyssynchrony. Prolonged anxiety levels can also induce psychological effects such as increased fear and inhibitions. This can ultimately affect the patient’s overall capacity to cope with difficult emotions and situations (Richart-Martinez & Perpina-Galvan, 2009).
The intracellular compartment has trillion of individual compartments, the cells, which consist of fluid. Extracellular, is the fluid outside the cells and consists of 2 sub compartments, which are the plasma and interstitial fluid. 40% of the body weight is intracellular for males and 35% for females. 20% of body weight is extracellular, which is made up of 80% interstitial fluid and 20% plasma volume. (Marieb.
The blood vessels are a intricate network of tubes that transport blood throughout the body. These vessels carry blood from the heart via the arteries ,then arterioles, then to capillaries or sinusoids, to venules, to veins and back to the heart. The final component to this structure is blood that delivers nutrients and removes wastes that are a by product of cellular processes that happen within the body. What is its
It causes the sympathetic system to: decrease appetite and sleep, while also increasing heart rate, blood pressure, blood glucose, bone loss, and anxiety. This can lead to hypertension, diabetes, heart and mental problems. Adderall can also be habit-forming over a prolonged period of time, and
When your blood flow is obstructed, it is known as ischemia. Ischemia causes a lack of oxygen and nutrient delivery, and increases the pressure put on your heart. When a blood clot obstructs more then 75% of an artery, you may begin to feel symptoms of Thrombosis/Ischemia, due to lack of oxygen being able to travel through your body, and an acumulation of lactic acids. When more then 90% of an artery is blocked, it can cause anoxia and infarction. Obesity, heart failure, chronic respiratory failure, smoking, pregnancy, estrogen treatments, prolonged car and air travel, bed rest, and varicose veins are all things that increase the risk of
Write an essay on the regulation of arterial Blood pressure? Constant and adequate pressure in the arterial system is required to drive blood into all of the organs. Abnormally low blood pressure results in inadequate perfusion of organs, while abnormally high blood pressure can cause heart disease, vascular disease and stroke. Therefore, it is essential that blood pressure be maintained within a narrow range of values that is consistent with the needs of the tissues. MAP = CO x TPR MAP is normally 120/80 Formula for MAP = diastolic pressure + 1/3 (systolic-diastolic) The 4 most important variables affecting arterial blood pressure are: TPR Heart Rate Stroke Volume Viscosity of blood 1 Total Peripheral resistance Resistance of arterioles is important in maintenance of arterial BP Arterioles contain VSM and has the ability to contract and relax Regulated by sympathetic nerve activity Resistance,and its relation to volumetric flow rate (Q) and pressure difference between the two ends of a vessel are described by Poiseuille's Law.
Hypertension, an important and common risk factor for considerable morbidity and mortality not only in the industrialiased world but also in the developing countries. Thus, the problem of hypertension can be truly considered as pandemic. But the individual continues to remain asymptomatic owing to the gradual onset and progressive damage occurring to the blood vessels leading to hypertension. It is influenced by many factors such as age, sex, diet, personal habits, family history, emotional factors, socio economic status etc. Constant elevation of blood pressure can lead to irreversible changes in vital organs such as heart, brain and kidney.
The cellular portion of blood includes red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Generally, the fluid portion of the blood is called plasma and is made up of various non-cellular materials. Together, these blood components make up whole blood. The cellular part of blood contains several different types of cells and cell fragments. Red blood cells, also called erythrocytes, are the most numerous of these.