Ethylene glycol is mixed with water so it is 50% of each liquid in the solution and has the highest boiling point than any other radiator fluid (5); its boiling point is 197.3°C and has a melting point of -12.9°C (12). This makes it a good heat transfer fluid because having a low melting point will mean that it can flow in colder conditions and have a high boiling point means it can be used in the summer (13). It is also odourless and colourless (6) and has a specific heat capacity (SHC) of 2.2 J/g/°C (9). Propylene glycol is mixed with water (70% fluid, 30% water) and it prevents corrosion (5). It is quite like ethylene glycol.
The solubility of the solution containing Ca(OH)2 in NaOH had a smaller solubility of 4.15 g/L than the solution containing Ca(OH)2 in water, which had a solubility of 4.45 g/L. This experiment successfully showed the relationship between the concentration of the Ca2+ ions in solution. Introduction: Many ionic compounds are considered to be “insoluble” in water, but no compound 8placed in water. When the slightly soluble compound stops dissolving the ions in the solution and the undissolved solid are in equilibrium.  A saturated solution is one that holds as much dissolved solute as possible at a given temperature, therefore only a small amount of a slightly soluble ionic compound is needed to produce a saturated solution of that compound.
Because this reaction is reversible, a fractional distillation is necessary to produce cyclohexene, water, and some impurities and a simple distillation is followed to further purify the product. [pic] (Fig. 1- Cyclohexanol dehydrated by sulfuric acid to produce cyclohexene) Procedure: 1. Mix five mL of Cyclohexanol and 2.5 mL of 9M sulfuric acid in a 25 mL flask. 2.
Data: Data Table 1 | | | Rubbing Alcohol Trial # | Boiling Point | Percent Error | 1 | 79.5 C | 3.52% | 2 | 84.0 C | 1.90% | 3 | 83.5 C | 1.30% | Data Table 2 | | | | Acetamide Trial # | Melting Point | Freezing Point | Percent Error (Melting Point) | 1 | 79.5 C | 57.5 C | 3.50% | 2 | 80.5 C | 59.5 C | 0.60% | 3 | 78.0 C | 61.0 C | 3.70% | Observations: It was observed that thermometer placement could affect the readings in the water bath. I ended up holding the test tube assembly to where the bottom of the test tube was not touching the bottom of the beaker to ensure better readings. Also, when substances recrystallize, I am not sure whether to take a reading when the substance has full crystallized or begun to so results could be fairly inaccurate. Questions: A. Why is it useful
For example, the compound magnesium chloride, MgCl2, contains Mg2+ and 2 Cl-. The sum of the charges is zero: (2+) + 2(-) = 0 • When two or more ions are needed for charge balance, the number is indicated by subscripts in the formula. • You can check that the formula you write is electrically neutral by multiplying each of the ionic charges by their subscripts. When added together, their sum should equal zero. 4.7 Write the correct ionic formula for the compounds formed from the following pairs of ions: a. Na+ and Cl- b. K+ and
The average density: =0.82+ 0.77+ 0.77 = 2.36 = 2.36/3= 0.79 g/ml Note that the burette was the most accurate in determining accuracy of measured amounts. The average density for all three of these methods is: = 0.76+ 0.73+ 0.79 = 2.28 =2.28/3= 0.76 g/ml Graph Procedure B. Determination of the boiling point of an unknown liquid Note that the atmospheric pressure in the lab room is 100 Kpa. (Xidos, 2013-2014) Required: An assembled boiling point apparatus. Fifteen drops of the unknown liquid was then placed into an empty
Name: Melody Wong N8426066 Cation and Anion Reaction 1. Objectives Educational Aims * To learn how to set up a practical experiment * To compare experimental results with the theoretical results and explain any discrepancies. Experimental Aim * To examine the reaction between cations and anions 2. Theory A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another. Chemical reactions occur whenever bonds are formed or broken between molecules.
They have a relatively high level of hydrophilicity. Conversely, cationic surfactants such as cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) release a positive charge in an aqueous solution. On the other hand, in alkali pH, amphoteric surfactants act as anionic while in acid pH, it act as cationic. Non-ionic surfactants such as partially hydrolyzed PVA (polyvinyl alcohol) have no charge (Li et al, 2008). Among four types of surfactants, partially hydrolyzed PVA is most frequent used because it gives the smallest microsheres (Jeffrey et al, 1991).
This oxidisng agent is widely used in manufacture industry. For example, sodium persulphate is used as a bleach and detergent component whereas potassium persulphate is used as a food additive and in hair dye. The wide usage of persulphate ions makes it important to understand the properties. The persulphate compounds are solid at room temperature and has melting point above 100⁰C. They are also soluble in water.
The “O” diameter of the sprue must be roughly 20% larger than the nozzle diameter. As shown in the figure below, “O” dimensions are critical in relation to part and runner size. With hot bushings, control of the melt temperature entering the runner system is more accurate. Nevertheless, because of the high-temperature plastic melt and injector nozzle repeated contact, so the design is often