Australian Covert Bullying Prevalence Study

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The incidence of bullying in Australian primary and secondary schools is a common occurrence, reflected by statistical data (Rigby, 2011) . The repercussions extend into broader society, however this essay will be limited to Australian schools and their evolution. It will focus on non- technological bullying although there are other forms such as cyber bullying. Its prevalence will be examined by focusing on research conducted by Adjunct Professor Ken Rigby of the University of South Australia which culminated in the publication of the Australian Covert Bullying Prevalence Study (Cross et al., 2009). The Australian Education system derives from the colonisation of Australia by the British (Roberts, 2008). It is primarily the responsibility…show more content…
As Cole (2000) suggests, this involves physical, verbal, psychological and social aggression. Examples include hitting, threats to harm, teasing, theft or damage of possessions, rumour spreading, and exclusion (Rigby, 2007). This may be motivated by jealousy, distrust, fear, misunderstanding and the need to feel powerful (Rigby, 2007). As Cross et al., (2009) states, one in six students report being bullied at on a weekly basis with half of all students experiencing bullying at some time. Specifically 27% of Year four to Year nine students are bullied every few weeks or more (Cross et al., 2009). Verbal bullying such as name calling, teasing and spreading hurtful lies appears to be the most common form (Cross et al.,…show more content…
Physical bullying declines with age and is the least common form (Olweus, 1993). In girls, covert bullying tends to increase in frequency in late primary school, whilst it increases in early secondary school amongst boys. It usually occurs within the same gender, that is 47% amongst boys and 48% amongst girls (Cross et al., 2009). However, 32% of boys and 28% of girls were bullied by both genders. Covert bullying was slightly higher amongst girls with overt bullying being higher amongst boys (Cross et al., 2009). Generally, males report being bullied more than females (Cross et al,

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