This is hierarchy is created by the desire of talented and driven individuals to achieve their goals and in doing so to generate the money which allows our society to thrive and grow. Not all individuals have the drive or intelligence to become financially successful. Some people will remain poor and thus will not achieve the “American Dream”. To elaborate on why the American dream is destroying America I will state what is wrong with its socialist foundation. Socialism is the redistribution of wealth to those the government feels needs it.
Marx argues that the ideologies in the superstructure cover up the inequalities of society; he argues that these ideologies justify inequality because they are not neutral and therefore they serve the interests of the ruling class. Marx argues that the education system is like the workforce as it teaches us to be docile workers and accept that inequality is inevitable. Bowles and Gintis support Marx’s traditional view of the link between education and the nature of work in Capitalist societies. They argue that the education system integrate people into various aspects of the capitalist production process. The organisation of the education system mirrors the work force in many ways such as disciplining students to the demands of work- something they call ‘the crucial ingredient of job adequacy’.
Postmodernist claim that we have entered a new postmodern phase which is fragmented and more diverse. Assess the contribution of Marxism to our understanding of the role of education Marxists take a class conflict approach. They see social institutions such as the education system as serving the needs of capitalism and it reproduces class inequality and plays an ideological role by persuading exploited workers that inequality is justified and acceptable. Althusser sees education as an ideological state apparatus that keeps the bourgeoisie in power as they control the state. Capitalists are able to control people’s ideas, beliefs and values and they are also able to suppress the working class via the police and courts.
The assumption that the main role of the family is to solely promote capitalism is a view expressed by Marxists. Marxists claim the sole purpose of the family is to promote social class inequalities and act as a haven for capitalism. Marxists argue the nuclear family promotes the interests of the bourgeoisie at the expense of the proletariat. Such interests appear to be promoted in a number of ways throughout various aspects of family life. Marxists state the nuclear family performs ideological functions as it promotes ruling class ideology.
While functionalist sociologists see society as based on value consensus, Marxist sociologists see capitalist society as based on an unequal conflict between two social classes: the capitalist class who owns the means of production and the working class, whose labour the capitalists exploit for profits. Marxists see
The new right argue that the state education system fails to prepare young people well enough for work. Another criticism was made by Marxist, which suggest that the education benefits everyone while the Marxist argue that it only benefits the working class. A last criticism was made by an interactions which argues that the functionalist have an ‘over socialized view’. Suggest three criticisms that other sociologists may make of the functionalist view of the education system. the education system is not meritocratic/equal opportunity to achieve does not exist education’s role allocation function is not meritocratic/many jobs are allocated on the basis of class background, not educational achievement the education system does not instill shared values/it instills ruling-class ideology the education system fails to prepare young people adequately for work functionalists ignore the fact that many pupils reject the school’s values/pupils do not always passively accept what they are taught.
J.C. Kincaid claims that "from the point of view of capitalism the low-wage sector helps to underpin and stabilize the whole structure of wages and the conditions of employment of the working class." Differentials in wages help to fragment the working-class; if wages were similar, greater unity and a single class-consciousness might be encouraged, with a possible threat to the capitalist class as a result. Kincaid states "It is not to be expected that any Government whose main concern is with the efficiency of a capitalist economy is going to take effective steps to abolish the low wage sector." Westergaard and Resler attack the idea that the welfare state has led to a more equitable redistribution of wealth. Payments to the poor are generally levied from the working classes.
However, Gramsci argues that the ruling class domination can be overthrown where a classless communist society will be replaced. This is where the means of production benefits the society as a whole (equality). But in order to do so, working class must become conscious with the reality of their oppression. Gramsci refers to this as hegemony. Working class can develop ideas to challenge Proletariat hegemony through ‘dual consciousness’.
Eli Zaretsky in 1976 said the N.F reproduces the next generation of workers and it consumes the good of capitalism. It acts as a safety net for male frustration created by work. Zaretsky identifies the usefulness of the N.F giving an understanding of the dominating roles with the mother and father showing how sexist it is towards women. Also shows the socialisation of functionalists as the N.F sets up a good stability for the dependent children. Cooper another sociologist said the N.F is used to reinforce the ruling class ideology in order to keep the proletariat in a state of false class consciousness.
The proletariat is deemed as inferior and the bourgeois superior. This creates a class struggle. Marx attempted to find a solution of capitalist exploitation. Marx argued that exploitation emerged in capitalism because firstly, the laborers are completely deprived of human social relations, secondly they are forced to work for a meager wage , and thirdly the capitalists use their power arbitrarily. Exploitation is a matter of surplus value (profit).