Examine the Marxist contribution to our understanding of the family Unlike functionalist sociologists, Marxists do not agree with value consensus (agreement) and the promise of meritocracy. Marxist sociologists argue that institutions; such as the family helps to maintain the system of class inequality and exploitation. This is known as capitalism. By this, the Marxists mean that the family solely operates for the benefit of the bourgeoisie (the ruling class) and this allows for the exploitation of the proletariat to take place. This view sharply contrasts the view of functionalists as they argue that the family benefits both the society as a whole and all the individual members.
Assess the contribution of Marxism to our understanding of the role of education (20 Marks) In terms of education, Marxists see it based on class division and capitalist exploitation. Marxists see education as functioning to prevent revolution by reproducing class inequality and therefore maintaining capitalism. However this is a very negative view of education. Functionalists see education as a shared culture or value consensus; we perform functions that maintain society as a whole. Importantly functionalists see education based on meritocratic principles which is a big difference to the point of view that Marxists have.
Greed and inequality form a base for capitalism, best observed when discussed with competition. Competition would only become beneficial in a free market. The component that is affective in a free market economy is the flexibility to spend money and make money. He was firm with his approach and always argued that product was derived through the self-interest of the worker. The way that Adam Smith promoted his Invisible Hand theory was through his book “An inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations”.
He saw sociology as a new science. He believed that we must study social life with the same objectivity as scientists studying the natural world. Three of the main things dominant in his writings were: 1) The importance of sociology as an empirical science 2) The rise of the individual 3) The formation of the new social order For Durkheim, a major concern of sociology is the study of social facts.
Marx and Engels used the term "scientific socialism" to describe the type of socialism they saw themselves developing. According to Engels, socialism was not "an accidental discovery of this or that ingenious brain, but the necessary outcome of the struggle between two historically developed classes – the proletariat and the bourgeoisie. Its task was no longer to manufacture a system of society as perfect as possible, but to examine the historical-economic succession of events from which these classes and their antagonism had of necessity sprung, and to discover in the economic conditions thus created the means of ending the conflict." Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels referred to all socialist ideas that were simply a vision and distant goal for society as utopian. Utopian socialists were likened to scientists who drew up elaborate designs and concepts for creating what socialists considered a more equal society.
I will explore how significant his main idea of a ‘revolution’ was and how it affected other theorists who agreed with his concepts. The success of Marxism will also be one thing I will address during my essay. “The revolutionary ideas of Karl Marx rescues the revolutionary tradition of Marx and demonstrates conclusively the relevance of his ideas today for everyone who wants to end poverty, unemployment and war and see humanity progress” Marxism is a mix of different ideas, this includes German philosophy, mainly the dialectics of Hegel, French socialism, and British Political economy. We understand from the quote above that Marx held material circumstances to be fundamental to all forms of social and historical development. This specific Marxism ideology was largely influenced by Hegel’s dialectical method; it suggested that history is a contradictory progression of ideas passing through different stages, which would finally arrive at the truth, or the Absolute Idea.
Marxism is the foundation of critical theory and argues that within a society, it is the economy that determines social structure. (Littlejohn 2011) Marx explains in the critique of political economy, that capitalist systems (i.e. the United States) oppress the working class through profit-driven production. (Littlejohn 2011) Using this very broad definition of Marxism, I believe Marxist theorists would view advertisements as a means of oppression because they promote consumerism, competition, and most importantly, capitalism. Ads target the intangible needs and ambitions of their audience and offer fulfillment through products.
Postmodernist claim that we have entered a new postmodern phase which is fragmented and more diverse. Assess the contribution of Marxism to our understanding of the role of education Marxists take a class conflict approach. They see social institutions such as the education system as serving the needs of capitalism and it reproduces class inequality and plays an ideological role by persuading exploited workers that inequality is justified and acceptable. Althusser sees education as an ideological state apparatus that keeps the bourgeoisie in power as they control the state. Capitalists are able to control people’s ideas, beliefs and values and they are also able to suppress the working class via the police and courts.
Gurley (1984), Karl Marx 7 major contributions to political economy such as he established a framework, investigated the production and circulation processes of industrial capitalism, studied the processes of capital accumulation, one can find an economic theory of the state in Marx's writings, explained how workers are mystified by the system of capitalism, alienated within its production sphere, and misled by false solutions to their problems, investigated the future course of global capitalist and socialist development, and he examined the impact of capitalist expansion on less-developed countries an sketched outlines of the future socialist and communist societies. For the main element of Marx social theory such as all societies are stratified into distinct groups and classes, society is a product of class struggle and social change is more revolutionary than evolutionary, society is a totality, a structure of interrelated levels, social processes are never homogenous and uniform, but contradictory and dialectical, society and history are characterized by certain laws, but it is man who ultimately makes the world through his actions and praxis and class society is held together as much by ideology and as much by
Party Politics Marx believed that the working classes would spontaneously develop class consciousness and push for proletarian revolution. Lenin did not believe this, and he supported the formation of a political party to inform the working classes and direct their efforts against the capitalist system. Lenin believed that it would take an organized and