Public policy is the result of group services that act against one another. There is not one group that will resistor for every group, and there will be an equal and differing. The larger the group is, the more influence the group will have. The policies are the product of negotiating and cooperation will usually tend to be reasonable, fair to all, and conductive to social solidity. Examples, Business Marketing Association (BMA), and Congressional Budget Office (CBO), are insider groups that are more powerful and are practically the part of the establishment.
Pressure groups are mostly seen to be a major part of how democracy functions in the UK, however whether they undermine democracy is a question that has always been raised. They are mostly seen as to help democracy rather than hinder it however, as they help to represent the opinions and needs of minorities, as well as give an extra platform for participation. One of the ways in which pressure groups can undermine democracy is that they concentrate power,meaning some groups are able to influence the government more than others. These types of groups are ones such as the BMA and BDA, wealthy insider groups which a close and established relationship with the government and have direct access to decision makers, allowing them to influence policies
Sociologists often carry out research which can influence and be used by governments to dictate social policy. Some sociologists argue that sociological research has a large impact on social policy, whilst others argue that it has little influence, and that investors and the powerful are what influences social policy. Governments are elected by the people, as such the government and other political parties want to please the voters. This means that new social policies can influence how the government is perceived and how popular it is, if a new social policy is not popular then the government will lose popularity, and therefore voters. Moreover, governments will not accept findings which go against their beliefs, this suggests that social policy is only influenced by sociological research if the research findings happen to agree with the governments view.
However, a company endorses a certain individual for reasons such as political similarities or to help promote their product. When an endorser or multi-million dollar company begins to put pressure on their endorsees, then that is when issues has occured. The endorsers are supposed to be helping the politicians and in return they get more publicity which helps them become more recognize. Some endorses expect to be favored by their politicians and expect them to bend the rules for them. Obama states “I’ve never been entirely comfortable with the term “special interests… there’s a difference between a corporate lobby whose clout is based on money alone, and a group of like minded individuals coming together to promote their interests; between those who use their economic power to magnify their political influence far beyond what their numbers might justify, and those who are imply seeking to pool their votes to sway their representatives.” (116) Obama is simply stating that
“The Rebirth of Patronage: Have We Come Full Circle” Feeney and Kingsley (2008) states,“Patronage can be narrowly defined as the power to make appointments and distribute government jobs, especially for political advantage, but its social implications are much broader” (p. 167). Patronage can be used as an advantage for politicians who are running for any political office in order to win potential votes for their campaign. Most politicians are knownfor using different tactics like offering jobs, health care, and other issues that appeal to citizens. Will patronage divide or unite the United States? Patronage can have positive or negative effects on the United States while the merit system is against patronage and the spoils system is in
Supporters would argue that referendums should be used in the UK. This is for many reasons, such as allowing the public to have control over decision making. In doing so, making that decision is far more representative because it would be the popular choice, therefore making it far more legitimate. Also, because they’re secret ballots it means the voters can be non-partisan furthermore granting the final outcome to be a more justifiable choice due to f the vast amount of voters. In addition, referendums are a form of direct democracy, consequently giving the public control over decision making.
A pressure group is a group that tries to influence public policy in the interest of a particular cause. There are many pressure groups around the world, from well-known organisations such as Amnesty International, to lesser-known pressure groups such as the Zip Fastener Manufacturers’ Administration. However, no matter the size, they all have something in common; that they want their voices to be heard. Pressure groups undermine democracy because, although they improve participation, they are said to do this in an unequal way. Critics say that pressure groups benefit the well organised but they disadvantage the weakly organised, subsequently working against the public interest.
Our politicians have a great influence over what the media reports as well. At times the role of the media and the influence of politicians collide. Who wins out in the end is a complicated matter and is a very hot topic at present. I will elaborate on this idea and conclude with my thoughts on the “conservatives” charge that the media in general has a very liberal bias. The word “media” can be described many different ways, in both a positive and negative light.
As stated in the first paragraph, public action committees are legally authorized groups with the main purpose of raising funds for contributing in a few ways such as campaigning or to political parties. In federalism with large amounts of government power and expenditure; interest groups, such as special interest groups, will be more successful considering they express their amount of influence through government spending. The higher the federal budget, the more those groups will be able to influence their interests. There is another group not exactly defined as an interest group, but has some of the same characteristics. This is a 527 group, and it is similar to PACs apart from the fact that they are a tax-exempt organization, not regulated by the FEC, and are not as limited contribution-wise as PACs
In what ways do pressure groups enhance democracy? For some, pressure groups are a fundamental part of democracy. To others, pressure groups undermine the whole principle of democracy. Democracy is a system of government where decisions are arrived at by majoritarian principles with representatives elected at periodic elections where political equality and political freedom allow the voter an effective choice between competing candidates in a secret ballot. Pressure groups are a product of freedom of association, which is a fundamental principle of liberal democracy.