Potential Energy - Is the energy stored in an object due to its position in a force field or in a system due to its configuration. 4. Kinetic Energy - An object is the energy that it possesses due to its motion. 5. Friction - Is the force resisting the relative motion of solid surfaces, fluid layers, and material elements sliding against each other.
Description and Theories A. Principles and Theories Used to Obtain our Result An conventional spring, when subjected the weight (w=mg) of an object at one of its terminations, will displace a certain distance, x, with an equal and opposite force, F, being created in the spring of which opposes the pull of the weight. This conventional spring will become significantly distorted if it is subjected to a large enough weight and the force, F, will only be able to return the spring to its original configuration once the burden is removed. The force that will restore the spring to its original configuration is directly proportional to the displacement that occurred. The following equation represents this relationship where k denotes the spring constant or stiffness of the spring, F=-kx Since x symbolizes the displacement or change in the length of the spring the above equation can now be surmised in the following manner, F=mg=-k∆l This new form makes it evident that a linear proportion exists between the plot of F as function of changing in length, ∆, thus confirming the spring does in fact obey Hooke’s Law.
28 October 2008 Introduction: Static and kinetic friction are forces that are a result of two surfaces in contact with each other. Static friction is the force that must be overcome to cause an object to begin moving, while kinetic friction occurs between two objects in motion relative to each other. The kinetic friction force, Ff, kinetic, is defined by Ff, kinetic = μkFN, where μk is the coefficient of kinetic friction and FN is the normal force acting on the object. The maximum static frictional force Ff, max static, is defined by Ff, static = μsFN where μs is the coefficient of static friction and FN is the normal force on the object. The maximum frictional force that must be overcome before movement is able to begin is μsFN.
So you may be able to argue it shows that f is proportional to Mass x acceleration (but to be honest I think that would be stronging it a bit - balloons don't seem to give very constant thrust. First, you have to know the 3 laws of motion. 1. "A body continues to maintain its state of rest or of uniform motion unless acted upon by an external unbalanced force." 2.
Friction Objectives: To provide an understanding of the concept of friction. To calculate the coefficient of friction of an object by two methods. Materials: Ramp board: 3 - 4 feet long, 10 cm wide Can of soft drink or item of similar weight Friction block set-PK Protractor Scale-Spring-500-g Tape measure, 3-m Lab notes: Using the wooden block provided in LabPaq, a long board, a can of beans and the 500-g spring scale I will try and determine the force of kinetic friction, N, and the force of static friction, N while pulling the block at a constant speed. I will convert kg-mass to Newtons by multiplying the kg-weight by 9.8 m/s2, i.e., 100 g = 0.1 kg = 0.1 x 9.8 = .98 N. Observations: Mass of block (with can): 3995 kg Weight: 3.91 N Data Table 1: Flat board Flat board Force of Kinetic Friction, N Force of Static Friction, N Trial 1 1.1 0.6 Trial 2 1 0.7 Trial 3 1 0.9 Average 1.03 0.73 Data table 2: Flat board - Block Sideways Mass of block (with can) 3995 kg Weight: 3.91 N Flat Board - Block sideways Force of Kinetic Friction, N Force of Static Friction, N Trial 1 1.3 1.4 Trial 2 1.1 1.5 Trial 3 1.1 1.1 Average 1.2 1.5 Data Table 3: Different surfaces Surfaces tried: Glass surface Force of Kinetic Friction, N Force of Static Friction, N Trial 1 0.4 0.1 Trial 2 0.4 0.1 Trial 3 0.4 0.2 Average 0.4 0.13 Data Table 4: Different Surfaces Surfaces tried: Sandpaper Force of Kinetic Friction, N Force of Static Friction, N Trial 1 2.2 1.5 Trial 2 2.1 1.7 Trial 3 2 1.1 Average 2.1 1.43 Data Table 5: Different Surfaces Surfaces tried: Wood on Carpet Force of Kinetic Friction, N Force of Static Friction, N Trial 1 1.4 1.9 Trial 2 1.5 1.6 Trial 3 1.5 1.7 Average 1.47 1.73 Data Table 6: Raised Board Height Base Length θ max μs Trial 1 .44196 m .71120 m 60 deg 0.62143 Trial 2
|Resistance |Effort | |Force, as added mass |Arm length |Work |A |B |Total force |Arm length |Work | |to resistance side (g)|(m) |(N × m or J) |Force (N) applied |Pulling force applied |B-A |(m) |(N × m or J) | |converted to (N) | | |to balance the |to the spring scale | | | | | | | |lever with no mass|(n) when mass is added| | | | | | | |on effort side |to effort side | | | | |300 g = |0.70 |2.058 |0.87 |22.74 |21.87 |0.40 |8.748 | |2.94 N | | | | | | |
These weights hang off the sides of the wheels and pull on the string at different angles, the objective is to find the point at which all the weights pull on each other so the center of the string is in the center of the force table. This was found in the lab by slowly adding weights till the right mixture was found. The forces are recorded and then shown through vectors. Adding the Vectors up shows that you have a system of equilibrium or not, depending if there is a gap between the first and last vector. The results came out to be complete vectors with the corresponding degrees of the angles with we experimented on.
According to Dowding (1988) two levels of analysis can be considered. The first level of analysis (pseudo-static) involves the addition to the sliding mass of an inertial force that is equivalent to the anticipated acceleration times the mass. The next level considers the slope as a rigid block that slides in response to the base motion. Both these traditional analytical techniques have
Mathematical Relationships The relationship between acceleration, velocity and distance will help us to model the performance of the car. Relation of force (N) to mass (kg) and acceleration (m/sec2): Relation of velocity (m/sec) to acceleration (m/sec2): Relation of distance (m) to velocity (m/sec): Drag and Wind resistance The effect of wind resistance will be modelled as the additional force which takes effect at velocities greater than v1. According to the equation Fd = Fd0 (1 + b(v �� v1)2) the drag force will increase for velocities v > v1. In this case study there will be a low velocity drag force acting on velocities 20 m/s or less and an
The maximum angle lies between the 30º - 35º and the standard heights don’t reach over the 18 meters. The main components on an escalator are the top and bottom landing platforms, the truss, the tracks, the steps and the railing. Working Principle Each step in the escalator has two sets of wheels, which can roll along two separate tracks. The upper set which is near the top of the step are connected to the rotating chains. So that it can be pulled by the drive gear at the top of the escalator.