Introduction (p. 2): This course focuses on developing public speaking skills that can be used in a variety of professional and personal communication settings and contexts.
I. Public speaking is an audience-centered process (p. 4).
A. The Public Speaking Effectiveness Process Model (Exhibit 1.1) depicts the central role of the audience in speech planning and speech making.
B. Elements of the Model include:
1. Audience: the specific group of people to whom a speech is directed.
a. Before giving the speech, audience analysis involves the study of the diverse characteristics of audience members, and then, based on those characteristics, the making of predictions about how audience members are apt to listen to, understand, and be motivated to act in response to a speech.
b. During the presentation of a speech, audience feedback occurs when audience members provide nonverbal and verbal cues that indicate their reactions to what the speaker is saying.
2. Speaking Context: physical, cultural, historical, and psychological factors in the setting in which a speech is presented.
a. Physical setting includes location, size of room, seating arrangement, distance between and audience and speaker, time of day, room temperature, and lighting.
b. Cultural setting includes values, beliefs, meanings, and social mores of specific groups of people in the audience. Audience expectations and feedback behaviors may vary by culture.
c. Historical setting includes events that have occurred prior to the speech that are related to the speech topic, the speaker, and the audience.
d. Psychological setting includes the moods, feelings, attitudes, and beliefs of individual audience members that affect how the speech message may be perceived.
3. Speaker: source or originator of the speech. Choices of topic, organization, and language will reflect the speaker’s interests, beliefs, background, and experience, along with presentational goals for the speech.
4. Speech planning...