They didn’t even gain the right to vote until the 1920’s. They have always been looked at as the inferior sex in almost all categories. They were the ones who were supposed to stay home and watch over the children while the husbands got jobs and worked out in the real world making a difference. This was the societal standard even into the mid to late 1980’s. However, when the 1990’s began a lot of feminist movements began that spoke out to the fact that women should have more of a role in society than just to cook and clean.
Although change has come about for women in their struggles in the union movement, it is clear that there is still much to be done. Women are still underrepresented within the union executive and are not as active as males as Howell, 1996, noted "union activists and shop stewards are overwhelmingly male, while women tend not to take an active part in union affairs." Changes to language, accommodations to include childcare for meetings and to be more accessible with the time of meetings can assist in having more women participate. From this, the need for organizing separately became recognized. Women join unions for a variety of reasons, as noted by Linda Briskin, 1999, "Women have organized in response to male domination, patriarchal cultures, and hierarchical organization practises in unions that have indisputably marginalized women and their Separate organization has increased and is now present
Women have always been thought of as the weaker sex and Sociologists such as Heidensohn argue that men see the need to protect women. Police are more likely to caution a woman for shop lifting than they are a man. Flood-Page et al found that one in eleven female offenders had been cautioned and prosecuted in comparison to one in seven males. Women are also less likely to be prosecuted for an offence and found guilty of offences by juries. This is because women (especially when they have children) are seen first and foremost in the expressive role (mothering and caring).
However, some women joined the work force and would do jobs that men previously had held. Some were not forced to, but they had to work as hard as they could to support their families during this difficult time. In contrast, the writer Norman Cousins commented that there was a negative opinion on the women’s presence in the workforce despite women willing to acquire a living wage. He also stated in his book that the federal government proscribed holding government jobs by both members of a married couple, and many localities stopped hiring women whose husbands with a minimum wage (Cousins 1939). Another aspect of the Depression affecting life of women was the moral argument against working-women.
In 1890, less then one half of one percent of women were employed gainfully outside of the home. Over the next hundred years, women have not only gained access to jobs outside of the home, but also fought for equality in the work place. These struggles have not been easy by any means. Women have overcome many obstacles in there journey into the work force, none grater then the views of their male piers. Many males thought and continue to think that there is no place for women in the work place.
Name: Course: Lecturer: Date: The Other Gender Gap by Marshall Poe The domination and achievement of women than men in enrollment and the completion in institutions of higher learning is a crucial topic to study for use to understand the potential consequences of this phenomenon to the family especially marriage, labor markets, politics among other issues The movement by women seeking for better opportunities for American girls has performed and achieved its goals as far as the attainment of the girl child is concerned. But this has according to Poe has come at a cost for the boys, who are no longer performing well in school. A few decades ago there was a huge educational gap between the boys and the girls. Very few girls compared to boys were able to achieve high education in institutions of higher learning in America. But due to the efforts and campaign by gender women the number of girls in the institutions of learning has grown to the point that girls are more than boys.
<BR>Are boys and girls treated differently by the teacher in classroom situations? This is a question that has frustrated many psychologists and educators. In many cases, I think gender does play a significant role in the education process. Teachers may unconsciously give more attention to the boys in a classroom. Peggy Orenstein proved this in her essay, "Learning Silence: Scenes from the Class Struggle," in which she did field research in junior high schools interviewing and observing the interaction of teachers to their students.
Because women had always kept up the tradition role of a house wife whose only job was to stay at home, take care of the kids within the informal sector. It was always seen as the husbands job to go out and labour. So now within the labour market; women tend to experience heavy discrimination against them in both their pay and job opportunities. Women tend to receive lower wages than men when working on the same level job and when it comes to promoting; a man would be more likely to receive that promotion. Even when picking jobs it is hard for women to get high up jobs within the private sector not only because they are unable to reach them because of the glass ceiling theory, but as well because women tend to take other things into opinion rather than just the pay.
Obedience to their fathers and their husbands was also a big factor back in this time. Although the expectations of women in the early nineteenth century were shifting, their status within a patriarchal society remained the same. Politically, they were absolutely powerless. Because of the social expectations that tied female dependence on men, single women and widows were the most vulnerable. They were extremely limited on occupational choices as well.
In some cases, women are now considered equal to men instead of being someone that can be ruled over or given orders to, they are making decision and their opinions and suggestions are being taken into account. Women are climbing the ladder of success at a very high speed but this growth is not being appreciated enough by the media, women are underrepresented in the news (Smith, Analysis of Harmful Representations of Women in the Media, 2011). This observation led me to my research question. 2.2 Research Proposal Why are women in the media, television and film industry underrepresented