Firstly, Italy was only partially politically united, namely due to a number of liberal policies. The voting reforms of 1912 allowed universal male suffrage, which thus widened the electorate and allowed more Italians to vote for a majority government, therefore increasing political stability and unity, as opposed to unstable coalitions. The election deals of 1912 somewhat united the liberals and Catholics, as it widened liberal support due to their adoption of Catholic policies (which appealed to the Catholic voter, a large majority of Italians), which somewhat increased stability due to a widened electorate. Finally, the liberals invited moderate socialists to form policies with the Catholics as part of trasformismo, which partially increased political unity for a short time due to the pretence of a unified coalition and the attempt at unifying two polarised political parties. Overall, all these policies somewhat increased political unity, albeit temporarily, as they widened the electorate and allowed the Italian masses the chance to vote in a majority government.
How significant was Mazzini in the growth of opposition to autocratic and foreign rule in Italy in the years 1831–49? (30) Mazzini was a republican nationalist who had a significant effect in the growth of anti-autocratic feeling in Italy. He had radical aims for the future of Italy and he envisioned unification. He was the first leader to indoctrinate in the minds of Italians a vision of political unification. Mazzini created the Young Italy society after the 1831 revolutions.
French and Piedmontese armies emerged victorious. Another role that Cavour played that heavily contributed to Italian unification was when he intervened in the
France promote the unification of Italy in a large extent. However there were other countries such as Prussia, Britain, and Austria. Also there were significant figures who promote the unification of Italy such as Garibaldi and Cavour To start with France has not always been positive factor for the unification process. France in 1848 sent an army of about 20.000 men to destroy the roman republic. At Plombieres meeting of 1858 Cavour and Napoleon III agreed to work together which the agreement was Nice and Savoy are going to belong to France(so there would be no complete unification) and fought the war of 1859 against Austria.
How far do you agree that the use of repression was the main reason the Fascist regime was able to control Italy in the years 1925 – 43? State repression was clearly an important factor In the fascist regime’s ability to control Italy from the mid-1920s. As Mussolini’s dictatorship was established in 1925-26, various instruments of repression, such as the OVRA and the special Tribunal, were introduced to target political opponents and keep the Italian population in line. However, Fascist rule was not simply based on coercion and intimidation. Fascist propaganda had some success in persuading many Italians to view the regime in a positive light.
The growth in support for fascism in this period was indeed a key factor in Mussolini’s appointment as prime minister because it helped to put him on the political map. However, the level of this support was simply not large enough to explain Mussolini’s rise on its own. More important was the fear of socialism that gripped much of Italy at this time, along with the need for strong and stable government. Mussolini showed great skill in positioning himself as the answer to these two problems at the same time as convincing the Italian establishment that he would be a responsible prime minister who would respect the constitution and control fascist violence. He may not have had huge popular support, but by 1922 significant numbers of the most influential Italians were prepared to tolerate him as the only acceptable alternative to the status quo.
Benito Mussolini had a very important role in his rise to the power of Italy. There were some factors that made the people think in a change in the politic system, and this was taken by him to consolidate his arrival to power. On the one hand, Mussolini made several moves that helped him get closer to the mandate of Italy. He promised to the people of Italy a political stability. By that time the political situation was chaotic, after the Paris conference very little beneficial resolutions were made for Italy.
Long running weaknesses within the original political system aided in developing support for Mussolini, along with his ability to change the party’s policies to accommodate all members of society. Although the war was important in allowing this rise in support for the PNF, it was not the only factor which played a part. After the land promised to Italy in the Treaty of London did not materialise, many Italians felt that their victory was one which had been ‘mutilated’. Orlando, Italy’s Prime Minister had failed to fight for the promised land during the signing of the Treaty of Versailles at the Paris Peace Conference, leaving Italy bitter towards its own government. Prominent socialist at the time D’Annunzio led some 2000 soldiers into the city of Fiume in defiance of the Italian Government.
Thematic Essay Nationalism is a concept that has continuously held together and torn apart groups of people through history. It is a feeling of pride or devotion in one’s country and has worked to strengthen and form United Nations as well as destroy them. Through the history of both Germany and Italy it can be seen how beneficial nationalism is in strengthening and unifying a country. People were able to come together through the sharing of a common heritage. This was not the case in other empires such as the Ottomans and Austrians, where nationalism was the very cause of their collapse.
January 2011 How far do you agree that the revolutions of 1848–49 in Italy were caused primarily by economic grievances? To what extent was French involvement an obstacle to the unification of Italy in the years 1848–70? June 2011 To what extent had the provisions of the Vienna Settlement (1815) relating to Italy been overthrown by 1849? How significant was Victor Emmanuel in promoting Italian unification in the years 1850–70? January 2012 Why did Piedmont become, and remain, the driving force towards closer Italian unity in the years 1848–61?