Jean Jacques Rousseau concluded that all people were entitled to participate in their government, as well as possessing liberties to political and legal equality (Brinkley Alan pg 142). These ideas only fed colonist’s growing discontent with their mother country, and proved the unjustness of no taxation without representation. With the aid of Enlightenment thinkers, colonists recognized the lack of stability of the British Parliament as well as the excessive power of the king. Although revolutionary issued propaganda, the pamphlet Common Sense by Thomas Paine summarized the lack of just British leadership, and alerted colonists to the country’s abuse of power. The British crown was no
Adams relies on juxtaposition and counter argument to develop his argument that a free government is better than a monarchy. John Adams uses juxtaposition to show that a monarchy is worse than a free government. A juxtaposition is a contrasting effect that compares two statements but makes another one stand out more. John Adams writes “...the ministers of state can never know their friends from their enemies; secret cabals undermine their influence, and blast their reputation...the ministers can have no enemies of consequence but among the members of the great or little council, where every man is obliged to take his side, and declare his opinion, upon every question.” (Adams n. pag.).
It does not mean that the patriots are vicious or are terrorists. In all reality when he wrote the letter to William Smith that contained this quote Thomas Jefferson was ultimately trying to affirm the right of the people to rebel against one’s government. At the time, Jefferson was deeply concerned about some of the new proposals for the new United States Constitution; particularly the role of the executive branch, which he saw as being far too powerful. In addition, Jefferson believed that the recent rebellion in Massachusetts; which became known as Shays' Rebellion -- had heightened the fears of the American elite, causing them to throw their weight behind a stronger executive government. Shays' Rebellion was essentially an armed rebellion against taxes being levied at Massachusetts farmers.
Politically, conversatism consisted of the hereditary monarchy, a democracy that was rejected, and political decisions made by the monarch and his personal advisors. Liberalism favored the governments that were based on constitutions and separation of powers. It was a supporter of a republican government, or a constitutional monarchy where the ruler is elected by the people. Socially, conservatism wanted social order, much like the Three Estates System, while liberalism defended the natural rights of all people to liberty, equality, and property. The Industrial Revolution was rejected by the conservatives because it brought more power to the bourgeoisie, who owned the means of production, while it weakened the nobles.
PRIOR KNOWLEDGE: The Articles of Confederation were a major failure as a constitution. AUDIENCE: The intended audience of Federalist No.16 was those in New York. REASON: The reason for this document was to address the failures of the Articles of confederation and its inability to govern the country. THE MAIN IDEA: The Articles of Confederation would only bring destruction to the new country. SIGNIFICANCE: Brought up a point that a strong central government was needed for the country to survive .
With respect to the Federal Constitution, the Jeffersonian republicans are usually characterized as strict constructionists who were opposed to the broad constructionism of the federalists. To what extent was this characterization of the two parties’ accurate during the presidencies of Jefferson and Madison? The Jeffersonian Republicans and the Federalists were both thought to be different when abiding by the constitution. The Republicans believed that the authority of the Federal government was based on a strict constitution, characterizing them as strict constructionists (Doc A). Federalists, on the other hand, believed in broadly adhering to constitution, characterizing them as broad constructionists.
Jefferson and Hamilton also fought while making the national bank in 1791. Thomas Jefferson believed that a literal interpretation of the Constitution should be followed, and therefore, a federal bank was unconstitutional, while Hamilton used the ‘elastic’ clause (then called the “necessary and proper” clause) to argue it is alright to start. Because of this argument, people were surprised that when Jefferson took office, he followed Hamilton’s loose interpretation of the Constitution and hardly changed any plans, only the 8% whiskey excise tax was removed. Thomas Jefferson then also followed an ‘elastic’ interpretation of the Constitution when purchasing Louisiana from France (Doc. C).
Antifederalists thought that increasing the national government’s power would doom the states, and that state governments were more responsive to popular will. This showed British-American’s fears of concentrated power. The federalists had popular figures like Washington and Franklin on their side. The constitution was ratified June 21, 1788. The last state to vote was New Hampshire.
“Civil Disobedience” Henry David Thoreau ENG 111 OE- Susan Booth Courtney Wood “Civil Disobedience” by Henry Thoreau discusses the importance of the individual rights while under a powerful and ruling government. He shows criticism toward American Social Institutions and policies, mostly criticizing slavery and the Mexican-American War. In the beginning of his essay, Henry Thoreau states that he believes the government rarely shows itself useful and only obtains its power from majority vote because they are the “strongest” group, not necessarily because their vote is correct. He goes on to say the peoples first obligations are to do what they think may be right and not to follow the ruling of the majority of the people. When governments
Meanwhile, Anti-Federalist believed power should remain with the states. As you can see the Anti-Federalist was against the constitution. “New Constitution Creates a National Government, Will not Abate Foreign Influence, Dangers of Civil War and Despotism“. The main reason they revoked the constitution is bad is because it divided the powers amount the government in 3 branches (Judicial, Legislation, Executive), so NO ONE had supreme power over. Anti-Federalist didn’t approved they wanted a bill of right instead.