Valuation Questions Essay

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Valuation Questions Question 1 Union Pacific Railroad reported net income of $770 million in 1993, after interest expenses of $320 million. (The corporate tax rate was 36%.) It reported depreciation of $960 million in that year, and capital spending was $1.2 billion. The firm also had $4 billion in debt outstanding on the books, rated AA (carrying a yield to maturity of 8%), trading at par (up from $3.8 billion at the end of 1992). The beta of the stock is 1.05, and there were 200 million shares outstanding (trading at $60 per share), with a book value of $5 billion. Union Pacific paid 40% of its earnings as dividends and working capital requirements are negligible. (The treasury bond rate is 7%.) The market risk premium is 5.5%. a. Estimate the free cash flow to the firm in 1993. b. Estimate the value of the firm at the end of 1993. c. Estimate the value of equity at the end of 1993 and the value per share, using the FCFF approach. Question 2 Lockheed Corporation, one of the largest defense contractors in the US, reported EBITDA of $1290 million in 1993, prior to interest expenses of $215 million and depreciation charges of $400 million. Capital Expenditures in 1993 amounted to $450 million and working capital was 7% of revenues (which were $13,500 million). The firm had debt outstanding of $3.068 billion (in book value terms), trading at a market value of $3.2 billion and yielding a pre-tax interest rate of 8%. There were 62 million shares outstanding trading at $64 per share and the most recent beta is 1.10. The tax rate for the firm is 40%. (The treasury bond rate is 7%.) The firm expects revenues, earnings, capital expenditures and depreciation to grow at 9.5% a year from 1994 to 1998, after which the growth rate is expected to drop to 4%. (Capital spending will offset depreciation in the steady state period.) The company also plans to lower its

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