- Baroque had a negative connotation: It signified distortion, excess, and extravagance... except when we get to Vivaldi and Bach. -The Doctrine of Affections held that different musical moods could and should be used to influence the emotions, or affections of the listener. -Musicians spoke of the need to dramatize the text yet maintain a single effection--be it rage, revenge, sorrow, joy, or love--from beginning to end of a piace. - The single most important new genre to emerge in the Baroque period was opera. - The Baroque gave rise to a remarkable variety of musical style, ranging from the expressive monody of Claudio monteverdi (1567-1643) to the complex polyphony of J.S.
Hu Zhenqi 24 June 2011 MRLC Mr.Ryan HOW BACH’S STYLE IS DISTINCT FROM VIVALDI’S Bach and Vivaldi are two of the most well known composers in the Baroque period. They have similarities and differences in their style of composition. This essay would focus on their differences in style. Their styles are different in many ways and most people would focus on their use of melody, harmony or rhythm but this essay would focus on their use of basso continuo. The way Bach uses basso continuo in his music is what makes Bach’s style distinct from Vivaldi’s.
It fuses the characteristics of the experimental recitative opera (founded by the Florentine Camerata) and also appears to be modelled upon L’Euridice, an opera composed in 1600 by Jacopo Peri, due to the similarities in subject and the mixture of styles used. However, due to the progress made in composition and also due to Monteverdi’s
Being an Austrian composer during the Enlightenment, Haydn began to create new musical ideas. He changed the idea of Baroque and created his own. He used ideas such as subtlety, climax, contrast, and suspense and put it together and composed (History Reference Center 4). While working with composers such as Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, and Ludwig van Beethoven (they did not get along), they brought in the Classical Period of the Enlightenment. Creating new musical
Prior to the classical era, musical patronage was dominated by the church. In the height of classicalism, the relatively new ‘public concert’ was growing in popularity, while patronage from monarchs was still the main lifeline for composers like Haydn and early Beethoven. Then by the start of the romantic era, the public concert grew to be the primary financial supporter of musicians.  Without this crucial shift in patronage, the lifestyle and vitality of musicians would be significantly different from how it is today. This change in patronage had a parallel relationship with changes in musical style as well.
Ars Nova The Ars Nova in France was started by Philip de Vitry around 1310 and continued through the 1370’s. Ars Nova was known as the “new art” signifying the new French musical style. It made many improvements in music notation and style, however many people were against this and strongly supported the “ancient art”. The new notation required an open mind and reconstruction of musical time. The first change to be made was allowing the “imperfect” and “perfect” divisions of note values and the second divided the semibreve into minims allowing more rhythmic flexibility and new meters, creating for the first time syncopation.
At first the violin wasn't popular, in fact, it was considered a musical instrument of low status. But by the 1600s such well-known composers as Claudio Monteverdi used the violin in his operas, thus the violins' status grew. The violins' prestige continued to rise during the Baroque period, made more notable by such celebrated figures in music as Antonio Vivaldi and Johann Sebastian Bach. By the mid-18th century, the violin enjoyed a vital place in instrumental music ensembles. In the 19th century, the violins' rise to fame continued in the hands of virtuoso violinists such as Nicolò Paganini and Pablo de Sarasate.
THE CLASSICAL PERIOD (1750-1825) THE CLASSICAL PERIOD OF MUSIC 1) TIME OF GREAT MUSICAL EXPERIMENTATION AND DISCOVERY 2) CENTERS AROUND ACHIEVEMENTS OF VIENNESE SCHOOL A) HAYDN B) MOZART C) BEETHOVEN 3) THREE CHALLENGING PROBLEMS A) EXPLORE MAJOR-MINOR SYSTEM TO ITS FULLEST B) TO PERFECT A LARGE FORM OF ABSOLUTE INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC (THE SONATA CYCLE) C) TO DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN ITS (SONATA CYCLE) VARIOUS TYPES 1) SONATA 2) CONCERTO SYMPHONY 3) ELEMENTS OF THE CLASSICAL PERIOD 1) ELEGANT AND LYRICAL MELODIES A) ELEGANT AND LYRICAL MELODIES B) CLEAR-CUT CADENCES 2) THE HARMONIES THAT SUSTAINED THESE MELODIES A) FIRMLY ROOTED IN THE KEY RHYTHM 3) A) MUSIC WAS IN EITHER 2, 3, 4, OR 6/8 B) STAYED IN RHYTHMIC STYLE IT BEGAN WITH 4) FORM A) UNFOLDED
The music of the Classical Period is characterised by objectivity and emotional restraint, clarity of form and adherence to certain structural principles. Although Beethoven made use of the concepts of music predominantly in the style of the classical era, he incorporates several aspects which are more evident in the romantic period. As a composer of the late classical and early romantic periods, Beethoven’s Symphony No. 5 epitomises the stylistic characteristics of the classical era but also a progression into romanticism is evident. Structure • Sonata form – repeat of the exposition was predominantly used in the classical period • Exposition x 2: o 1st subject – b.1-43 o Bridge passage – b.44-58 o 2nd subject – b.59-94 o Codetta – b.95-124 • Development – b.125-247 • Recapitulation: o 1st subject – b.248-287 o Bridge passage – b.288-302 o 2nd subject – b.303-372 • Extended Coda – b.373-502 Pitch Melody: • Piece begins in C minor with several modulations throughout: o The second subject modulates to E flat major through the descending arpeggios in the bridge passage o The development is in F minor before modulating back to the tonic of C minor in the recapitulation o The second subject in the recapitulation is in C major, the tonic major o The piece is back to C minor in the coda and there is an extended tutti perfect cadence from bar 496 to the end o The modulations are of major and minor tonalities, a classical characteristic • From bar 6 there is the use of imitation and sequences in the throughout the strings before the whole orchestra restates the theme at bar 18.
This procedure results in an “end-weighted” structure. Another balladic aspect of the finale of Op. 58 involves thematic relations within the movement. The sudden dramatic shift associated with the appearance of the secondary theme and its sequential design suggest a “characterizing” function within the balladic narrative, while the presence of the dancelike leggiero third theme provides a temporary distraction from the intensity of the main story. A final reference to Chopin’s balladic model can be found in the coda of the movement, where the virtuosic passages resemble Chopin’s Ballades in the transformation of the thematic material to such an extent that the only remainders of the original themes occur in the accompanying figures.