Most of the means of production, such as factories and businesses, are owned by private individuals and not by the government. Private owners make decisions about what and when to produce and how much products should cost. Capitalism is based on free competition and supply and demand. However, socialism puts control of production in the hands of the people, either directly or through the government. Socialism also believes that wealth and income should be shared more equally among people.
Marx believes that we now live in a capitalist society, which is based on divisions in society. He labels the two classes, the capitalist class the bourgeoisie and the class of the labourers the proletariat. Marx believes that this type of society is unequal, as the proletariat do not receive the goods that they have produced; only the cost of subsistence is received. Marx also believes that competition drives the ownership of the means of production into fewer hands, this drives smaller independent producers to become a part of the proletariat. Competition also creates companies to drive down wages, as they will wish to make their products at the lowest cost they can, this alienating the working class and causing them to become impoverished.
Capitalism Capitalism is an economic and political system where economy production is controlled by private owners and consumers instead of the government. The theory of capitalism was created by Adam Smith, author of “The Wealth of Nations” to achieve economic freedom. He reinforced the term “Laissez- Faire” meaning the government should not interfere with the economy because the “Invisible Hand” or supply and demand will naturally set the prices and quantity. Consumers’ actions influence business owners’ decisions on what to produce, how to produce and for whom to produce. Capitalism is most often seen in a market economy.
This was named the ‘Great Depression’ and was a major change for the economic state of Britain. Many social changes occurred during this time period also. Social classes, the changing role of women and the decline in power of the monarchy and landowning class are all key factors of this. The industrial revolution brought about new jobs for the middle and working class, meaning they could live a wealthier lifestyle. With the economic growth of factory owners and workers, they wished to have greater political power.
Marxists see society as based on unequal class conflict between the two social classes; the capitalist class, who owns the means of production and the working class whose labour the capitalists exploit for mere profit and power. Marxists have identified several functions that they see the family as fulfilling all for the needs for capitalism. One of these functions the Marxists believes keeps society in a ruling class ideology is the inheritance of property. The key factor, according to Marxists, in shaping society is the mode of production which includes who controls and owns societies as well as productive forces such as tools, machinery, raw materials, land and labour. Karl Marx stated that the earliest, classless society was almost “primitive communism” where there was no private property and all members of society owned the means of production communally.
Assess the Marxist view of the role of education in modern society (20 marks) Marxists view society as based on conflict. They believe that the role of all institutions in society can be understood in terms of how they relate to the economic system and how they feed back into the capitalistic society. They therefore see the education system as an institution which reproduces the class system and provides the economy with a suitable workforce. The labour force needs professional and executive workers, as well as skilled and unskilled manual workers. According to Marxists, the role of the education system is to provide workers for every part of the economy.
The American Revolution was revolutionary by bringing change in economy. Due to the Revolution there was a big change at the state level where power went to the less wealthy (Doc I). Also the economy was changed by abolishing primogeniture (Doc G). Doing so enabled other people to get wealthy without having come from a wealthy family. Economy was an initiative to stop prevents people from supporting Great Britain.
This was sometimes called ‘Revolution from above. During the years 1928 to 1941 Stalin decided to introduce a series of reforms in order to radically change Russia’s economy. This would not only create a more prosperous country, but as well would stand out the figure of Stalin and would make him a memorable leader for his acts, moving of the way the image people had of Lenin as the real and unique leader Russia once had. During these years, through collectivisation and industrialisation (Five Year Plans), Stalin was able o successfully improve Russia’s economy. This was mostly due to his policies of collectivisation which made economic sense and forced a lot of peasants to leave the land, which was a process needed in order to change an agricultural rural society to an urban and industrial one as well s the fact that his industrialisation plan increased massively the heavy industry in Russia; the production of raw materials such as iron, coal, steel and oil all increased successfully.
In modern society it is a capitalist class who own and conrtrol these means of production. Marx pointed out that in early societies such as the hunter gatherers it was a classless structure, which he called "Primitive Communisim" and this worked because everyone owned the means of production communally. There was no need for a nuclear family, people lived in tribes or as Engels called it the "Promiscuous Horde". As production developed wealth was created, some members of society saw the advantages of private property and so society changed by being split into those who controlled the means of production and those who no longer did. This led to the patriarchal monogomous nuclear family.
arxism is an economic and socio-political worldview that contains within it a political ideology for how to change and improve society by implementing socialism. Originally developed in the early to mid 19th century by two German émigrés living in Britain, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, Marxism is based upon a materialist interpretation of history. Taking the idea that social change occurs because of the struggle between different classes within society who are under contradiction one against the other, the Marxist analysis leads to the conclusion that capitalism, the currently dominant form of economic management,