Lab 4 – Energy Sources and Alternative Energy Experiment 1: The Effects of Coal Mining |Table 1: pH of Water Samples | |Water Sample |Initial pH |Final pH (after 48 hours) | |Pyrite |6 |6 | |Activated Carbon |6 |7 | |Water |6 |6 | POST LAB QUESTIONS 1. Develop hypotheses predicting the effect of pyrite and coal (activated carbon) on the acidity of water? a. Pyrite hypothesis = The pyrite will probably dissolve a bit and increase the ph of the water b. Coal (activated carbon) hypothesis = The activated carbon will probably increase the ph of the water as it dissolves and releases chemicals into the water 2. Based on the results of your experiment, would you reject or accept each hypothesis that you produced in question 1?
Lab 4 – Energy Sources and Alternative Energy Experiment 1: The Effects of Coal Mining |Water Sample |Initial pH |Final pH (24-48 hours) | |Pyrite |7 |4 | |Activated Carbon |7 |8 | |Water |7 |7 | POST LAB QUESTIONS Develop hypotheses predicting the effect of pyrite and coal on the acidity of water? Pyrite hypothesis = If the pyrite is left in a warm climate in water for 48 hrs, then it will have a higher pH then the initial Coal hypothesis = If the Coal is left in a warm climate in water for 48 hrs, then it will have a lower pH then the initial Based on the results of your experiment, would you reject or accept each hypothesis that you produced in question 1? Explain how you determined this. Pyrite hypothesis accept/reject = Reject. According to the pH balance strips, my pyrite recorded a significantly lower pH of 4.
Dr Khounsary explains an experiment using a fixed voltage and varying the temperature of the wire using a torch. The article further explains that the temperature coefficient of copper at 20 degrees C is .00393 and that a single degree of temperature change would increase the resistance of the wire by that amount. In the article regarding the Effect of Temperature on Conductivity (The Nuffield Foundation, 2006) the article describes how the conductivity of a wire decreases as it is heated. It provides an example schematic diagram for the test circuit and the use of Eureka wire instead of copper wire. A2a.
Objective: The objective of the first lab is to use the graph of Pressure versus Temperature to estimate the value of Absolute Zero. Based on the Gay-Lussac’s Law, pressure is proportional to temperature; we are able to find the Absolute Zero when the pressure reaches zero. Conclusion: Our experimental result is -285.40 C. It means when pressure reaches zero, the temperature should reach -273.15 C, which is the value of Absolute Zero. Our experimental Absolute Zero value is fairly close to the accepted value, and the percentage error is 4.48%. One of the major sources of error in this experiment is that the volume of metal ball will rise while the surrounding water’s temperature rise.
After reading Rudolph H. Weingartner’s Justifying Civil Disobedience, I was able to come up with several guidelines of my own to use when justifying the morality of an environmentally inspired act of civil disobedience. First off, civil disobedience should only occur if all alternative methods have been tried and not produced a result. Next, the motive of the act must be a moral motive, in order for it to be considered morally acceptable. Along with this, the act must be well planned and thought out to avoid any unnecessary consequences unrelated to the motive. If these criteria are met, I believe an environmentally inspired act of civil disobedience can be morally accepted.
2: First you measure the mass of the copper tacks and also try to get the mass of the water in the thermos as close to 0.1 kg since 1 dl of H20 = 0.1kg H20. 3: Using the test tube holder, sink the test tube with the copper in it into the 4: The electric kettle is now supposed to make the water boil and raise the temperature of the copper as close to 100ºC (T1cu) but it is not very likely that you will get exact 100ºC due to heat loss. This step will almost certainly take a couple of minutes. 4: Measure the temperature of the water in the thermos (T1w) and then add the tacks to the water in the thermos. 5: Now measure the temperature of the water (T2cu and T2w will have the same temperature).
An acid is a chemical compound that dissociates in a solution and releases hydrogen ions which lowers the pH. A base is the opposite so it donates hydrogen ions making the pH rise. A compound that neutralizes both acids and bases when added to a solution is referred to as a buffer. This is all tied together by the process of titration, which determines the concentration in a solution by adding to it a substance of known concentration in specific amounts. Before testing this experiment, I expected the pH to increase when the acid was added and to decrease when the base was added.
Design Lab-Chemistry HL Date; 27th February and 1st March 2013 Grade 11 Increasing the temperature to increase the rate of reaction between sulfuric acid and iron powder Experiment; To investigate the effect of temperature of reactants on the rate of reaction Focus Question; How does temperature (30, 35,40,45,50 degrees Celsius) affect the rate of reaction of H2SO4 (1.0M, Volume; 20ml) and Fe (2.5g) in 6 minutes? Fe (s) + H2SO4(l) FeSO4(l) + H2(g) Variables; Independent Variable- Temperature Dependent Variable- how much hydrogen gas is produced Controlled Variable-Sulfuric Acid (1.0M, Volume; 20ml), Iron powder (2.5g), and time (6 minutes) Materials; 3 100ml Flasks 1 cork 1 tube 1 100ml graduated cylinder 1 25ml graduated cylinder 1 clamp stand 1 spatula 1 apron A pair of gloves 1 dropper 1 tub of water 1 waterbath 1 balance scale Stopwatch 3 pieces of paper 2 thermometers 37.5 grams of Iron Powder (Fe) 300 ml of 1.0M H2SO4 Procedure; 1. Wear an apron, gloves and goggles for safety reasons 2. Obtain all materials which are 3 100ml flasks, 1 cork, 1 tube, 1 100ml graduated cylinder, 1 25ml graduated cylinder, 1 clamp stand, 1 spatula, 1 dropper, 1 tub of water, 1 waterbath, 1 balance scale, 1 stopwatch, 2 thermometer to your work place 3. Then obtain 37.5 grams of iron powder, and 300 ml of 1.0M H2SO4 to your work place 4.
This causes the atmosphere to reflect heat back to earth and causes global temperatures to rise. Because of the costs associated with climate change, there are costs associated with carbon emissions, costs the firm does not have to pay. (Externalities n.d) (See figure 1.1) Whilst it is not feasible or economic for all carbon emitting activates to cease it is important to have methods of internalising the negative externalities to compensate the affected parties that did not benefit from the initial exchange.” To internalise a negative externality means to alter incentives so that people take into account the external effects of their actions.” (Gans, King,Mankiw 2010 p.204). Governments around the world have varied methods of internalising negative externalities. The three best means by which to internalise the negative externalities associated with emitting carbon into the atmosphere are a Pigovian tax, carbon emission regulations / quota and tradable pollution permits.
Experimental Procedure: 250 mL of the copper solution was made by creating 100 mL of the solution, reacting CuO with HNO3, and then diluting to the mark of 250 mL. Using this stock solution, different concentrations were made and placed in the sprectrometer for observation. The absorbances and transmittances were recorded for use when identifying the amount of the color-absorbing copper ions later. A graph was plotted of Absorbance v. Molar Concentration easily see the results of the experiment. Pre-Lab Questions: 1.