II. Primate Evolutional Trends a. Primates are distinguished by three main evolutionary trends 1) Limbs and Locomotion i. pentadactyly ii. nails instead of claws iii. prehensile hands and feet iv. ability to maintain erect posture v. retention of the clavicle 2) Dentition and Diet i. generalized dental pattern designed for varied diet ii.
The evolution of primate locomotion and body configuration… ------------------------------------------------- Paper Abstract: This paper traces the evolution of primates through lemuroides, tarsiers, monkeys, apes to humans, and looks at the skeletal changes reflected in the change from arboreal to terrestrial locomotion. Paper Introduction: Primates have evolved over a period of millions of years and theultimate in evolution is the human Over the course of time differentprimates evolved different body structures which suited their time andtheir lifestyle and the ecosystem into which they fit The prosimians andthe early primates were arboreal and over time they gradually descendedfrom the trees and developed an upright stance This was accompanied byskeletal changes to accommodate the postural changes Primates aredistinguished from other mammals by nine general features A generalized limb Text of the Paper: The entire text of the paper is shown below. However, the text is somewhat scrambled. We want to give you as much information as we possibly can about our papers and essays, but we cannot give them away for free. In the text below you will find that while disordered, many of the phrases are essentially intact.
Early Hominins Humans have come a long way from the beginning of evolution. There are many adaptations that hominins went through in order to survive and expand. There are a few things that have changed between early hominins and the humans that we are today, but there is also something that remains the same, which is bipedalism. The early hominins were characterized in different groups: Ardipithecus, Kenyanthropus, and Australopithecus, but they all had one thing in common and that was that they all were bipedal. The “key feature [that] differentiating early hominins from apes” is bipedalism.
Data and Observations: Create a data table to record your observations and measurements for each skull: Skull|Forehead|Face|Teeth|Foramen Magnum|Brain Cavity |Supraorbital Height (cm)| Pan troglodytes (modern chimpanzee)|Sloping|Flattened|Short/Dull|Rear|6.08cm|54.934cm| Homo sapiens(modern human)|Vertical|Flattened|Short/Dull|Front|9.01cm|67.703cm| Homo erectus(extinct hominid)|Vertical|Vertical|Short/Dull|Front|6.69cm|61.883cm| Australopithecus afarensis (extinct hominid)|Sloping |Vertical|Both/Both|Rear|5.92cm|53.209cm| Unidentified Fossil Skull |Sloping |Flattened|Short/Dull|Rear|6.60cm|51.364cm| Conclusion: I think that the unknown skull holds the most similarities to pan troglodytes. However, the unknown skull is also closely related to the Australopithecus afarensis skull. My hypothesis was right in that the unknown skull was very similar to the Australopithecus afarensis. However, I was a small bit off as the pan troglodytes ended up holding more similarities with the unknown skull. I think that the unknown skull was less
Hominid Development of Bipedalism There are many theories about why bipedalism came to be selected for by evolutionary process. The fossil record indicates that hominids started to use bipedal locomotion as their primary method of travel around 11 million years ago. Darwin's ideas indicate that changes in an organism usually respond to change in environment. People who study changes in the Earth have noted that during this time Africa was going through some changes that might have put pressure on these primates to change. ”Gradually, the African rain forests, deprived of intense humidity and rainfall, dwindled in extent; areas of savanna (grasslands) and scattered deciduous woodlands became more common (Ember, Ember, Peregine, 2011).
Cartilage is a type of dense connective tissue. Chondrichthyes also lack ribs and bone marrow. However they have dorsal, caudal, anal, pelvic, and pectoral fins. Chondrichthyes have very tough skin that is covered in tooth like scales called dentils or placoid scales. This body covering has two functions, protection and streamlining.
Bipedalism Approximately 350 million years ago, hominids acquired the characteristic of bipedalism, that is, walking upright, on two feet. Evidence ranging from 4 to 3 million years ago help us to better understand how and why this acquired characteristic took place. Keeping in mind however, that mostly all primates can sit or stand up straight and many can even walk upright, although not for long, the differences in fossil records are minor yet crucial pieces of evidence. Early hominid fossils resemble those of modern day monkeys, however, with more fossils and evidence found, we see the structure change in their bodies. Early footprints evidencing a convergent toe and well-developed arches were found at Laetoli, on a paleosurface tuff dated to 3.56 ±0.2 mya (Jacobs).
Contents [hide] · 1 Etymology · 2 Classification · 3 Physical characteristics · 4 Behavior · 4.1 Social structure · 4.2 Life history · 5 Intelligence · 5.1 Self-awareness · 5.2 Theory of mind · 6 Relationship with humans · 7 References · 8 External links Etymology The word capuchin derives from a group of friars[->32] named the Order of Friars Minor Capuchin[->33], an offshoot from the Franciscans[->34], who wear brown robes with large hoods covering their heads. When explorers reached the Americas[->35] in the 15th century they found small monkeys who resembled these friars and named them capuchins.  When the scientists described a specimen (thought to be a Golden-bellied capuchin[->36]) they noted that: "his muzzle of a tanned color,... with the lighter color around his eyes that melts into the white at the front, his cheeks..., give him the looks that involuntarily reminds us of the appearance that historically in our country represents ignorance, laziness, and sensuality. " The scientific name of the genus, Cebus, on the other hand, comes from the Greek word kêbos, meaning a long-tailed monkey. Classification The species-level
A primate called the Bush Baby has distinctive qualities and features that are different from others. The Bush Baby has long fingers and thumbs, hand-eye coordination, and can also pick things up using their hands and feet. Aye- Aye primates use tools to find and eat food. For instance, aye –aye use their long fingers for tacking, probing and hooking larva from tree branches as
Widely published data of specimens that were reported to have been even several feet longer are not verified.  There are dwarf forms on Java, Bali and Sulawesi. On Bali they reach an average length of 2 metres (6.6 ft), and on Sulawesi they achieve a maximum of 2.5 metres (8.2 ft).  Geographic range and habitat Natural Distribution of the Burmese Python (green). The Burmese Python are found throughout Southern- and Southeast Asia, including Eastern India, Nepal, western Bhutan, southeastern Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, northern continental Malaysia, far southern China (Fujian, Jiangxi, Guangdong, Hainan, Guangxi and Yunnan), Hong Kong, and in Indonesia on Java, southern Sulawesi, Bali and Sumbawa.