Nervous System Health And Social Care

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Two Main Cells Nervous System Health And Social Care The two main types of cells in the nervous system are neurons and neuroglia. Neurons are also called functional units. They are the actual nerve cells that transmit impulses of the nervous system. Each neuron consists of three basic parts: a cell body, axon, and one or more dendrites. The cell body, also called the soma, contains the nucleus, cytoplasm, and other organelles. It manages the metabolic activity of the neuron. The axon is a thin cytoplasmic projection that extends from the cell body. It transmits impulses from the cell body to another nearby neuron. At its end, it may branch off in order to transmit impulses to dendrites. Some axons are covered with protective coverings called…show more content…
Its main function is to connect the central nervous system to the limbs and organs. The PNS is made up of nerves that are cordlike bundles of nerve fiber that transmit the impulses and ganglia that are knot-like masses of nerve cells all situated outside the central nervous system. It’s not protected by the bone of the spine and skull or by the blood-brain barrier. The PNS consists of 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves. It’s broken down into the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system. The somatic nervous system consists of nerves that provide voluntary control over skeletal muscle contraction. The autonomic nervous system consists of sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves that provide involuntary control over smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and gland activity and secretions. One is thought of as the accelerator and the other, the brake; or “fight or flight” and “rest and digest” respectively. The sympathetic nerves increase the heart rate, constrict blood vessels to raise blood pressure, and elicit a “fight or flight” response. The parasympathetic nerves do the opposite by decreasing the heart rate, dilating the blood vessels, and stimulating the digestive…show more content…
The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain and is divided into the left cerebral hemisphere which controls the right side of the body and right cerebral hemispheres that controls the left side. The cerebrum controls consciousness, language and communication, memory, sensory processing, emotions, and movement. The cerebellum is attached to the brain stem. It plays an important role in motor control and contributes to coordination and balance. The diencephalon is between the cerebrum and midbrain. It contains several organs like the thalamus, hypothalamus, and pineal gland. The thalamus receives all sensory stimuli except smell and relays them to the cerebral cortex along with regulating consciousness, sleep and alertness. The hypothalamus, located below the thalamus, is responsible for certain metabolic processes and other autonomic nervous system activities like body temperature, sleep, and appetite. The pineal gland extends from the back portion of the diencephalon. It produces melatonin and regulates the body’s biological

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