Using named examples, assess the advantages and disadvantages of top down and bottom up development strategies (15 marks) Development is the ways in which a country seeks to develop economically and to improve the standards of living for its inhabitants. Numerous development strategies both top down and bottom up can be used by countries to help them progress. However, while these may be advantageous in certain areas, not all strategies are as effective everywhere and thus problems can arise with top down and bottom up development schemes. Top down strategies are generally capital-intensive and often conducted by the government. The main criticism of these schemes is the fact that the money which is supposedly meant to aid the poorest people in the country who are most in need is actually diverted to those who are richer instead.
Inequality can cause many problems when it comes to a country as a whole or even a relationship with only two people. Think of the last time you heard the word “inequality,” and now think of when it was last used in a positive way or to actually benefit more than just a specific targeted group of people. Usually inequality greatly benefits some, but commonly is negative for all. When you are thinking of a Nation as a whole, inequality is going to be more of a problem than in any way positive. Among any population of people it will be only a matter of time before causing major problems; problems that will grow to be unfixable and thus creating unavoidable change.
“Evaluate the view that gender inequalities are the result of a patriarchal society” It is a gaping paradox that in a society where we seem to have reached a higher respect for women than ever before, what with improved laws protecting them both at home and in the workplace and notable demographic changes (increase in divorce and illegitimate births for example), that their economic status continually declines. This was the basis of Diane Pearce’s theory in 1978, “the feminisation of poverty” and now more than ever, it holds incredulous relevance. Why has their increased independence resulted in their pauperisation and dependence on welfare? Many feminists, including Diane Pearce, would point their finger at one cause: patriarchy. Marxist theories state that inequality is not a female issue, but a class one, for they note that middle class women are often better off than working class men.
Explain why the impacts of global warming are predicted to be uneven and unfair. Evidence of the impacts of global warming is accumulate and becoming more precise. Its effects on people, particularly the poor minorities, indigenous peoples and others living in low-lying areas and other vulnerable regions, are becoming more apparent. The most prominent characteristic of global warming is the inequality in which the human population would experience it. Global warming is a result of greenhouse gas emissions being let off into the atmosphere.
He talks about how resources are limited and the more people there are in this world, the more the competion there will be. His conclusion is that the United States, by aiding povish countries, are just barely keeping them alive enough to reproduce more that results in more people living a miserable existence. Those who can not provide should not reproduce which will result in the death of the excess people that eventually leads to equilibrium because their will be more to offer. Montgomery also peeks some interest in his morbid, yet sadly logical theory, by bringing to the attention of his readers how it will improve the economy. The over population problem also correlates with unemployment.
This poverty has been pursuit due to “free market ideals” which is expressed in imposition of “neoliberal economies policies”. This are policies that have sort certain ways of cutting the taxes on wealthy and it do away with fiscal and business regulations, which shred social safety net and eroding the middle class stability (Andersen & Taylor, 2006). Due to this, the richer get more rich and the poor get poorer and more numerous. Behind the issue of economy performance, there are disparities of social behavior which unacknowledged the critics of US economy system. Changes in family structure have increased the level of poverty in America.
Yet, this is problematic because, as scholars Lucas and Buzzenall, “the vast majority of Americans, the standards of success portrayed in these cases are not just an improbability, but a systemic impossibility” (2004, p. 274). This implies that economic class hegemony does not allow for people to pursue their own opportunities. In addition, the systemic impossibility is even made worse when a person is part of a marginalized race that denies them the opportunities to achieve those economic classes. Due to this, our society places privilege on particular economic class
According to an article in Slate On, the poor and low income people in our society are more overweight than the wealthy. This psychological behavior transcends to other cultures as well, telling me that people don’t really want equality but superiority. Regardless of the parts of the world you are from, someone always wants to feel superior to someone else. Though Americans did inherit the “wanting more” trait from the frontier opportunities, there were an influx of other nationalities flocking to America for the same opportunities (82). Likewise, they too have adopted the “hunger for more” mentality because they are financially able to adopt the psychological want.
The reason being as more of a certain good is consumed, it will begin to provide less utility to the consumer. This means that and extra $1 income would be of more worth to a low income earner than to a high income earner. This suggests that a more equal distribution of income will be beneficial to the total utility. Unfortunately, it is extremely to gain an accurate assessment of relative
Joann H. Shivers SOC 560 Social Stratification Dr. Debarashmi Mitra Short Essay #1 June 8, 2012 Several questions were considered in the Great Debate in the U.S. Congress which include: Is inequality a good and for whom; Is inequality necessary to motivate people and what is the motivation; Is inequality acceptable as long as fair competition and equal access exit such as education and talent; and How much inequality is necessary? According to Sernau, “rewarding individuals based on their talent raises the issue of magnifying versus minimizing human differences“ (2005). Some individuals are paid much higher wages because they hold a more commanding position than the individuals who actually conducts the work and/or