And it was clear one group was not satisfied with what the manifesto promised. These where called the Kadets and where led by Pavel Nikolayevich Milyukov. The Kadets where not happy with how weak the Duma would be and the fact the Tsar could out rule any decision they made. This shows that the October manifesto was not that important in ensuring the Tsars survival as it created more opposition to him. The Liberals were also not the only ones that the manifesto displeased.
Stalin was more popular because of Trotsky’s “political paralysis” he couldn’t be a good public speaker. This links to my next point because they both result in Stalin’s getting more power. Stalin made an alliance with Zinoviev and Kamenev to form the triumvirate. The triumvirate’s main aim was to defeat Trotsky. Trotsky advocated a permanent revolution with Stalin didn’t want.
However, you shouldn't make the assumption that devotion to ideology was all that was behind Cold War animosity; countries tend to be more complaint trading partners with countries that share their political systems and both Stalin and the Cold War Era presidents in the US knew this. The tension eventually built, but no one wanted to go to actual war again after the colossal massacre of WWII, hence the term Cold War. 2. Describe and explain the ideological differences between the United Stated and the Soviet Union. In 1917, Russia became a communist country with an agenda of converting the world to communism.
How far were divisions among its opponents responsible for the survival of tsarist rule in the years 1881-1905? Divisions of opposing groups and their differentiating ideas were very important to the survival for many reasons, but other factors such as the church, the army and the okhrana played a part in the survival of keeping the tsar in power. Opposition can be identified as four main groups; populists, social revolutionaries (SR’s), social democrats (SD’s), and the liberals. The populists Used violent tactics such as terrorism and violence, within this there was the people’s will, from the populist movement the social revolutionaries grew and they were to include a wider spread than just the peasantry. One of the reasons why this didn’t work was the downfall of communication, and disagreements within the group due to the extent of different opinions was so great causing splits and creating smaller less powerful sub divisions.
How accurate is it to say that the growth of reformist groups in the years from 1881 was the main cause of the 1905 Revolution? The 1905 Revolution was the start of political change in Russia, unlike other major European powers of the time, Russia was being ruled by an autocratic government and any effective reforms would have had to been by ‘change from above’. However, the Tsar Alexander III and his son, Nicholas II were firm conservatives and this ideal route would not have happened. Resentment to the lack of change created the growth of reformist governments and caused a Revolution which catalysed the much needed change in Russia. There were many factors that created a base for the reformist groups to flourish at that time in Russia which in turn created a Revolution.
The election for the coalition results in 76% supporting pro-Weimar parties, showing that the opposition and threats to the government had settled. People in Germany were no longer looking for extremist parties which was proved by the failure of the right-wing coalition. In theory the coalitions should have worked well with the cooperation from all parties. However, the SPD were reluctant to work with other parties subsequently weakening the democracy. This proves the political instability of Germany in this period as they were the largest party in the Reichstag but still refused to cooperate.
Whilst in exile the Bolshevik party struggled and did not push for an uprising with the same vigour. Lenin also did not care for the temporary leader allowing his members to join the P.G, but with his return he started planning an armed uprising once again and his personal presence in Petrograd, along with his reputation, allowed him to sway the opinion of other Bolsheviks that were not too confident to join the uprising, and to put an end to the Bolshevik support for the P.G. What this highlights is Lenin's ability to force others to see things his way, and without him the other leaders may not have chosen this course and the whole aim of the party may have been unsuccessful. However Lenin was not the only reason for the success of the party as there were other factors such as the war with the Austro-German allies. As Russia was having economical pressure extended unto it by France and Briton to continue its war effort the P.G was put in a paradoxical situation where to survive it had to continue fighting, but it could not survive if it stayed in the war.
While China appeared to be committed to a communist international revolution the more pragmatic Soviet Union was more in tune with world dynamics putting self-interest above abiding resolutely to communist principles. However, it appeared that ideological differences were not the only cause for the Sino-Soviet split, (although a firm underpinning factor) tension was also exacerbated by a clash of personality between Mao and Khrushchev, a long standing rivalry between Russia and China dating back to the 19th century and the shaky start based on the unravelling terms of the 1950 Sino-Soviet treaty. A fair argument on the Sino-Soviet split is that it was caused by ideological differences on how to build communism. Clearly Mao favoured a more militant approach to communism – he favoured support of other revolutionary countries and promoting the international spread of communism, in a sense adhering to a more acute interpretation of communism itself. Khrushchev however, while seeing himself and the Soviet Union as a forefront for world communism, seemed more flexible with basic ideology where it suited him.
Therefore the Russian revolution of 1905 failed because the revolutionaries were to easy to defend against as their attack were not in synchronization meaning the army only had to stop one group at a time meaning the revolutionaries suffered heavier casualties than they would have done. In addition the lack of leadership meant that the different revolutionaries had different aims meaning that they were not always on the same side and would often have fights as the social revolutionaries wanted land to be owned by the peasants and to share power with the Tsar where as the social democrats wanted to remove the Tsar completely. This meant the revolutionaries were a threat to themselves as well as the government. Therefore the 1905 revolution failed because of the different wants of the people meaning that they did not unite to one cause. Also the revolutionaries were split by the October manifesto which introduced a new more democratic government (a Duma), this pleased the social revolutionaries as they wanted to share power with the Tsar; however the social democrats wanted to
This particular political skill would become one of the key factors in his rise to power. The others include the political weakness and errors of his rivals, issues brought up within the politburo such as the N.E.P, and the fact that more often than not he had luck on his side. Stalin’s main rival, Trotsky, was the early choice to gain the position of leader of the party, having been Lenin’s personal favourite. However, Trotsky lost himself a large amount of support when he criticised the N.E.P, and Lenin. He was also tricked by Stalin into not attending Lenin’s funeral.