History of Saudi Arabia Essay

13537 WordsApr 26, 201455 Pages
History of Saudi Arabia From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Part of a series on the | History of Saudi Arabia | | Ancient Arabia | Early Islamic State | Rashidun Caliphate | Umayyad Empire | Abbasid Empire | Ottoman Empire | Emirate of Diriyah | Emirate of Nejd | European exploration | Emirate of Jabal Shammar | Emirate of Nejd and Hasa | Sultanate of Nejd | Kingdom of Nejd and Hejaz | Unified Kingdom of Saudi Arabia | Saudi Arabia portal | * v * t * e | The history of Saudi Arabia, as a state, begins with its foundation in 1932 by Abdul Aziz Al Saud, although the history of what was to become Saudi Arabia goes back to the beginnings of human habitation in Arabia up to 20,000 years ago. The region has twice in world history had a global impact. The first was in the 7th century when it became the cradle of Islam. The second was from the mid-20th century when the discovery of vast oil deposits propelled it into a key economic and geo-political role. At other times, the region existed in relative obscurity and isolation, although from the 7th century the cities of Mecca and Medina had the highest spiritual significance for the Islamic world, Mecca being the destination for the Hajj annual pilgrimage. For much of its history most of the region has been controlled by a patchwork of tribal rulers. The Al Saud (the Saudi royal family), were originally minor tribal rulers in Nejd in central Arabia. From the mid-18th century, imbued with the religious zeal of the Wahabbi Islamic movement, they became aggressively expansionist. Over the following 150 years the extent of the Al Saud territory fluctuated. However, between 1902 and 1927, the Al Saud leader, Abdul Aziz, carried out a series of wars of conquest which resulted in his creation of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 1932. Since 1932, Abdul

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