Class or socioeconomic status (SES) permeates our social behavior and thought (Kottak & Kozaitis, 2003. p. 2). Although there continues to be a considerable discussion as to what explains this class gradient, there is an emerging consensus that social class is a "fundamental determinant" of population health. (Link & Phalen, 1995) Together with race and gender, class constitutes a core social structure (House & Williams, 2003). Social class is more than a property of individuals, rather, it is more than a 'position' one
5. Social and economic factors which influence health The impact of social and economic factors on the health of individuals is well recognised and understood by the Health, Social Care & Well-Being Partnership, and is considered in the Needs Assessment. Most local authority services impact on health in some way and the first Health, Social Care and Well-being Strategy recognised the role of services such as social care, housing, economic development, education, and transport. But there are many others such as street cleaning, refuse disposal, building regulations which can also affect people’s health. This strategy once again prioritises a number of key influential factors which impact health in a significant way.
Understanding Healthcare Organizations: External Influences Week 4 Socioeconomic Status and Cultural Influences in Healthcare External Influences Socioeconomic Status and cultural factors are external influences in health care. Socioeconomic Status a complex characteristic, generally understood to encompass not only income and education level, the measures most commonly used, but also a wide range of associated factors that may affect the quality of health care patients receive, including insurance status, access to care, patients’ health beliefs, and many facets of the doctor-patient relationship, such as trust and communication (Bernheim SM, Ross JS, Krumholz HM, Bradley EH, 2008). The idea that people have better education, income and lifestyles, are less exposed to factors that contribute to stress-related diseases such as heart disease. Because the level of stress is less than those who experience significant differences in environment, health risks are greater in those who experience job loss, crime infested neighborhoods and poor education systems. Those who experience stress could turn to drug abuse, smoking and alcoholism.
“Social inequality refers to the unequal distribution of social, political, and economic resources within a social collective, such as a nation.” (Krieken, R. et al. 2014, p. 204). Sociologists have identified a number of variables which have an influence on social inequality. These include; class, status, power, social capital and cultural capital. Krieken, R. et al.
Evaluate How Policy Drives Patient Safety The aim of this essay is to evaluate how health policies drive patient safety, with a specific focus on policies relating to hand hygiene in health care. The essay explores the legislative framework, guidelines, and range of policies evident, and the degree to which these policies are successful in reducing Hospital Acquired Infections (HAIs). The essay references a number of Acts, policies and guidelines from the Department of Health, World Health Organisation and NHS Trusts. Health care policy can be seen as a network of interconnected decisions, plans and actions which collectively form a strategy or approach in relation to practical issues relating to the delivery of health care and the improvement of patient safety’ (Barker, 1996, p6). Improvement of patient safety consists of evaluating how patients may be injured, deterring and managing risks, recording and investigating incidents, learning from such incidents and implementing solutions to reduce the possibility of them reoccurring (Great Britain.
Spatial inequality is a major geographical issue affecting the whole world, including Australia. It describes where unequal amounts of resources and services are not distributes evenly among an area or location. It is the differences in communities e.g. income, occupation, housing and even access to facilities and infrastructure (hospitals, school and public transport). One of the main impacts of spatial inequality is the increase in poverty among particular groups such as Indigenous people, ethnic groups and females.
[pic] The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how social differences have become grounds for social exclusion. After a brief review of the definition of social exclusion, the paper will then show that social difference such as gender, social class, race and educational attainment have become grounds for social exclusion. The concept of social exclusion is relatively new, having been first introduced by Lenoir in 1974.There are many definitions of social exclusions. According to Levitas et al (2007) social exclusion occurs where different factors combine to trap individuals and areas in a spiral of disadvantage. Social exclusion is a dynamic process and can be transmitted from one generation to the next although not voluntary.
There are a number of factors which affect the way people vote in elections. These are a mixture of long and short term factors, and also sociological and political factors. One such factor is social class, and it has been argued that voting behaviour is determined by social class however it is also important to look at the other factors that affect who the public vote for including issue voting, party leaders, government record and the mass media, not forgetting that age, ethnicity and gender also play a huge part on peoples voting intention. From the 1974 October elections we can see that across Labour, Tory and Liberal Democrats there is huge difference in percentage of people who voted for each party depending on if they were from a middle class background, a skilled working class or a unskilled working class. For example, 56% of middle class voted for Tory where as for Labour they only won 19% of the vote for middle class and the Liberal Democrats won 21%.
To what extent has social policy aimed to remove inequalities in health and social care between different social classes? Tackling inequalities in health and social care between different social classes is complex and a long-term challenge that requires concerted action across government in a combination of effectively designed and implemented policies and ensuring effective delivery of those policies. Black Report (1980) and a government-commissioned Acheson report (1998) on health inequalities confirmed that inequalities in health and social care were increasing and were directly linked to social class. The government has radically shifted power to local communities, enabling them to reduce inequalities and improve health in people’s lives. Action to support mothers, families and children became a high priority in policy making.
However with the introduction of the human development index and gender development index development now incorporates health care, education, income for all, environmental sustainability and gender roles. This change in the measure of development has shown there are differences between true development and industrialisation. Throughout this essay I use human development index to assess development. Poverty can be defined in two ways, absolute poverty and relative poverty. “Absolute poverty is a condition characterised by severe deprivation of basic human needs, including food, safe drinking water, sanitation facilities, health, shelter, education and information.