Greek Dark Ages-Monothesism

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The key points in chapter 2 are the Greek Dark Ages, the Archaic Era, and the Classical Era that define the development of the Greek culture in western civilizations. The idea of ethical monotheism and they believe in rational or scientific inquiry from the Greeks are the two main concepts that provide the foundations of Western thoughts and beliefs. The Greek origin originated from the Minoans and Mycenaean’s civilizations. The Minoans developed mythology in the struggles of Greeks Heroes between arête and hubris. Arête represents the individual competition to achieve excellence in culture. This was the major role the Greek society lived upon. Hubris is the human conflict with human selfishness or pride. However, both civilizations fell due to natural disasters, and the growing instability and invasions from the East involving trade. Politically, Greece was revolutionary. We consider Greece one of the first to form the democratic government. Democracy was based on the focus of tyrants and Polis. These two ideas of freedom on a political level allows for a better way of life and more rights for its citizens, and is also still influenced still in today’s views of Western civilization. One thing that did change was the way that many of the Greek cities were ruled. While many had kings, some soon had “tyrants”, who were ruler because of raw power, not hereditary right. Political Excellence contributed the emergence of the city-state and roles of “its citizens”. It provided each citizen a way governing and providing justice through poleis. Polis is an individual unit such a city state with their own form of government and independence. By this new form of government, it politically changed the Old Alliance traditions by the beliefs in rationalism and natural order, and answers to all natural phenomena created scientific method. Socially, it changed by the Greek

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