For example, on Damascus Road, Saint Paul’s religious experience transformed his moral outlook. It would appear that all religious experiences demonstrate a revelation of truth, but one could argue that this does not indicate they are true. As Freud would argue that religious experiences are a way of externalising deep, repressed personal truths. In such a view, religious experiences are unverifiable and cannot be thought to prove the existence of God, as they are merely manifestations of the human subconsciousness. A transient experience short, and cannot be sustained for a long duration of time.
The third criteria is transience, meaning it is temporary and cannot be sustained, although its effects may last a long time. Lastly, the experience must be passive, it isn’t initiated by the individual but rather they have a sense that something is acting upon them. James suggests that religious experience may be seen as ‘psychological phenomena’, therefore possessing not divine quality. Ultimately, though, James does not desire to disprove the possibility of divine involvement in metaphysical occurrences. He argues that we should all be open to the possibility of religious experiences due to the similar nature of these events, despite cultural barriers.
Myths could be a mode of understanding as they are used to fill a gap in historical understanding where something is missing. For instance, writers of scriptures created myth to express the beginning of the world as there was lack of historical facts. Meanwhile, Aquinas believing that God is revealed through his creation, points out two types of analogy, analogy of attribution and proportion. Using analogy of attribution, human understanding of God can be enhanced because through looking at his creation, we can attribute certain characteristics to him. Just like how we can deduce something about an artist by looking at his work of art.
Critically evaluate Wittgenstein’s language games theory as an approach to religious language. God’s transcendence means there is widespread discussion as to how any statements in regards to his existence or nature can be deemed as ‘meaningful’. Influential philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein 1889 - 1951 was heavily involved in studies of Language and developed the idea that the purpose of philosophy was to clear up the conceptual confusions that arose through our unexamined use of language (including statements of religious significance and any religious language) and that words are a function of language, not just simply a signifying of an object. 'Whereof one cannot speak, therefore one must be silent.' Wittgenstein believed, in opposition to Rene Descartes’ Cogito Ergo Sum (I think, therefore I am) that language was a social product, and that statements made about the world were basic and 'groundless' and believed that judgement through opposing 'language games' was not possible, as they are parts of different discourse.
In a contrast to the limitations they faced, religion seemed to prove a connection that rose above everyday relationships. Such is reflected when Ginsberg refers to the "angelheaded hipsters burning for the ancient heavenly connection". There is obvious symbolism within the word angel, which is reflective of a positive view on religion. Typically, angels are sent to help or protect people, and thus these "hipsters" have obviously yearned either to help, or be helped through religious means. As well as this, the metaphor, in which the "connection" is described as being "burning" somewhat contrasts the typical calm connotations that are brought about through religious mentions, and yet is crucial in reflecting the passionate means in which the hipsters wanted to create a bond above what could be found in real life.
Flos Ut Rosa Floruit is a two-voice polyphonic conductus by an unknown composer from the 13th Century Notre Dame’s ars antiqua stylistic period. This a cappella composition is sacred but non-liturgical as it was composed originally and without content from previous works. Its poetic Latin text speaks about Jesus Christ’s birth (i.e. the “Nativity”) to a virgin Mary. The composer used music to reinforce and relate meaning to the text.
The argument from religious experience states that if we can experience God, then surely God must exist because what we experience must be real. There are many philosophers that try to explain this but the one I am going to focus on in this essay is William James. James defines religious experience as though it should be the primary topic in the study if religion rather than religious institutions, since institutions are merely the social descendent of genius. He also defines a religious experience as, 'The feelings, acts and experiences of individual men in their solitude, so far as they apprehend themselves to stand in relation to whatsoever they may consider divine.’ To James a prominent feature of religious experience is mysticism. He says, '...propose to you four marks which, when an experience has them, may justify us in calling it mystical...' The marks to which he is referring to are inefficiently, notices quality, transiency and passivity.
Page 62 of the article expresses that "most theists do not come to have faith in God as a premise for religious conviction, however come to religion as a consequence of different reasons and variables." However, he feels that to the extent confirmations serve theists, the three most usually acknowledged are the teleological, the
BAROQUE PERIOD The Baroque period lasted from about 1600 to 1750. The Baroque style is noted for its use of exaggerated motion and rich, minute detail in order to bring out emotional intensity like drama, tension, exuberance and grandeur in painting, sculpture, architecture etc. The Oxford English Dictionary states that the term ‘baroque’ has been derived from the Portuguese word ‘barroco’, Spanish ‘barroco’ or French ‘baroque’ which all mean ‘rough or imperfect pearl’, but it can informally also mean something that is elaborate or richly detailed. The term "Baroque" was first rehabilitated by the Swiss-born art historian, Heinrich Wölfflin (1864–1945) in his Renaissance und Barock (1888); Wölfflin identified the Baroque as "movement imported into mass," an art antithetic to Renaissance art. The Baroque style was encouraged by the Roman Catholic Church which wanted works of art to portray religious themes while conveying a sense of direct emotional involvement to the viewers, as a challenge to the Protestant Reformation.