These schemas are subject to change and as a child develops and matures cognitively these schemas become more flexible. By adolescence the schemas become flexible to the point to where a child’s cognitive ability is high enough to understand that the gender roles imposed on them are social constructs and many teenagers become more androgynous as a result. One strength that could be argued is that it is a valid cognitive explanation of gender development as, although contradicting Kohlberg’s cognitive development theory it is supported by research that clearly suggests that gender roles and stereotypes are established before gender is fully developed. One such example is the work of Fagot Et al where teachers found that re-enforcing boys and girls for the same behaviour the boys would not respond as the girls did to re-enforcement of feminine behaviour. This shows that boys already have ideas of the values associated with being male.
It is evident that nurture has a larger impact on personality and behavioral development, based on studies on three different subjects; early childhood development; feral children and isolates; and knowledge and intelligence. The way a child is raised is a major contributor to the child’s personality as it ages. Children are born with a blank slate, known as “Tabula Rasa”, and the first few years of ones life are important to the development of personality. There are many different theories about this subject, but all point out that the child’s behavior is affected by nurture. Erik Erikson’s theory on the psychological development of children consists of eight stages.
Gender, a social construct, is predominant from the moment a child is born, whether it is from parental influence, the media, clothing, or even children’s toys. These influences can affect the way a child learns how to “do gender”. The various toys, such as Barbie dolls and G.I. Joe action figures, My Little Pony, Strawberry Shortcake, Bratz Dolls, Power Rangers and most action figures that companies market to children of different genders reinforce stereotypical gender norms and perpetuate conventional gender roles. Parents should be conscientious when choosing their children’s toys because some toys can shape the overall learned gender norms of those children.
Outline and evaluate the biosocial theory of gender development. 8 + 16 marks The Biosocial theory suggests that the interaction between biological and social factors influences the development of a child’s gender. The sex of a child is determined, but the social and cultural influences upon that child lead to gender role behaviour and gender identity. When a baby is being developed in the uterus, the maternal hormones and genes determines whether that child is going to have male or female genitals/characteristics, however from birth onwards, social factors also begin to play an important part. It begins when a child is born; at this stage a child is labelled a boy or a girl and can have all sorts of influences of how the baby is treated (e.g.
Outline Kohlberg (1966) Kohlberg used a form of cognitive development. He believed that our understanding of gender develops over three stages. It is only after children have reached Gender Constancy that they can then display gender role behaviour. The three stages: Gender Identity At this early stage children learn whether or not they themselves as an individual are a boy or a girl. This is around age two to three and a half.
Discuss the influence of parent-child relationships and interactions with peers on adult relationships (8 + 16 marks) Although everybody’s childhood is unique, psychologists have identified persistent themes in childhood experiences that predispose us towards particular types of relationships as adults. Concerning the influence of parent-child relationships upon adult relationships, Shaver et al. outlined three systems that are acquired during infancy. The first is the attachment system which is related to the internal working model where aspects of an early attachment style continue to affect the child’s relationships during adulthood. This is due to the infant’s primary attachment figure causing the child to develop a particular internal working model of relationships leading the infant to expect that it will have similar relationships to that of their attachment figure in later life.
Little girls learn that they are supposed to like dolls and pink, while little boys learn that they are supposed to like trucks and the color blue. Through various forms of guidance and direction from external influences, children experience gender role socialization they quickly learn what behaviors are encouraged by their parents and peers, and which ones are not. These ideas are further reinforced by the media's portrayal of traditional gender roles. As a result, children internalize these beliefs pertaining to gender roles and their behavior is modified accordingly. The child's first influence in regards to gender roles is the family.
The word gender has been used to refer cognitive and social differences between males and females and sex refers to biological and physical differences. The process in which children acquire the values, motives and behaviors viewed as appropriate for males or females is referred to as gender typing. Children begin by developing gender based beliefs about what behaviors are appropriate, these beliefs are derived largely from gender stereotypes which are beliefs that members of entire culture hold about the attitudes and behaviors acceptable and appropriate for each sex they say the way male and female should act and should be. Gender roles are composites of distinctive behaviors that males and females in a culture actually exhibit and thus are essentially the reflections of a culture’s gender stereotypes, Gender identity is also developed early in life a perception of themselves as either masculine or feminine and having the characteristics and interest that are appropriate to their gender. There are few gender differences in aggression in infancy, boys are more likely than girls to investigate and be involved in aggressive incidents by the time they were toddlers.
Infant boys are dressed in blue, while baby girls are dressed in pink. The gender messages parents send their children become internalized at an early age, with kids as young as two years old being aware of sex role differences in adult tasks, clothing, and possessions (Weinraub et al. 1499). In addition, parents reinforce gender-typical behavior by promoting sex-typed activities and toys.
Introduction Are boys socialized differently than girls? The answer is yes. Gender is a social construct; gender socialization begins the moment a child is born, the way children are spoken to, touched, and played with; all which establish societal norms and expectations, thus socializing children from birth. Societal expectations influence the way parents raise their children. These societal influences are the leading cause relating to gender specific stereotypes.