The majority of new laws or changes to existing laws come from government but the can also come from MP’s, Lords or even a member of the public. E.g. ‘Sarah’s Law’. Both the House of Commons and House of Lords must debate and vote on the proposals. 2.
To answer this question one has to first describe and provide reasons for the rules which govern the legislative powers of the House of Lords in comparison to those of the House of Commons. To properly appreciate the rules one should determine the composition of the people who are subject to the rules first. Each member of the House of Commons represents a constituent of the UK and is voted for by that constituent, voting takes place once every term of parliament. Members of the House of Lords are selected not on a voting basis and are chosen from one of the two following methods. Hereditary members are those who inherit their status as from their family, non-hereditary members are chosen by the prime minister in recognition to their expertise to become life peers.
The Commons Select Committees are generally responsible for overseeing the work of government departments and agencies, whereas those of the Lords look at general issues, such as the constitution or the economy. Both Houses have their own Committees to review drafts of European Union directives. Rarely, there are also select committees of the Commons. Their role is to carry out detailed analysis of individual Bills. Most Bills since 2006-07are referred to public bill committees.
After passing through one House, the bill will have to be passed by the other House before it could become law. The legislative process in Parliament as outlined above shows the role of scrutiny of government proposals played by Parliament. Challenges to the bill, in the form
This was then followed by The Great Reform Act of 1832, where they introduced a system for the election of MP's, by the 20th century Britain had its separate parties.Then in 1945 the first truly modern election manifesto appeared with a clear program of reform and thus made representation farer. For representative democracy, each MP represents a constituency (incluiding N.Ireland and Scotland) they are expected to represent the interests of the constituency and make its constituents feel like they will be listened to and f needed solve their problems. An MP does not have to be part of a party therefore can have its own ideas on what is best for its constituents and can also use Burkean representation (expect to also use own judgement of best interests of its constituents, he should not be expected to follow instructions of those who elected him). If an MP is part of a party, they can retain independence within the party sturcture as for example in the 19th century, this was described as the 'golden age of the British MP' in doing so, they influenced over government policy. In certain
This is the means by with parliament passes the government’s legislation. Parliament is almost the only source of legislation. When a party wins the general election, a government is formed consisting of various parties. This government then makes laws that become acts of parliament, the legislation thus having been passed by parliament. Most bills that are passed by parliament are government bills; however, some bills that are passed through parliament are private members bills.
The principle organ of the US state is to legislate, represent and scrutinise the other, safely separated, branches of the government. First of the three elements in which Congress’s primary role plays is in legislation. The very first article of the Constitution lays out how this is done. Bills initiated by both the President and members of Congress are almost certain to be substantially modified as they go through the legislative process, making it very difficult for the President or any political faction to force through their policy agenda. Congress has been somewhat effective in passing laws such as the PATRIOTIC Act under Bush and the Healthcare Reform Act under Obama both show’s that Congress can legislate when it needs be, especially with a majority in both houses.
Efficiency, like I said a matter of perspective. This will be further illustrated and explained, later in the essay. As for now, a brief background on the House of Lords and the House of Commons, the history and relationship between them is required to understand the significance of the proposed 2 stage reforms which are as follows: a) The first stage , to remove the right of hereditary peers to vote in parliament (not fully accomplished), and the second stage; b) To decide whether the lower house should remain fully elected or partially elected and nominated. The term “parliament”, was coined in the 13th century. Its origins traced to the King’s council which essentially was an assembly of advisers to the King which also decided on appeal cases.
Proponents of the UK and US voting methods also often cite the lack of a credible alternative as a reason for the retention of the current systems. In the UK, national elections are held when the incumbent government chooses to call an election. This differs significantly from the USA where political office is held on a fixed term basis. When a general election is called each constituency holds an election to decide their Member of Parliament (MP) using the first past the post system. If a party gains a majority it will be offered the chance to form government by the Queen.
They are then implemented by the executive and enforced by the courts. Statute Law is the most important source of the principles and rules making up the British constitution because parliament is the sovereign body. An example of Statute law include: The Parliament Act (1911), which established the House of Commons as the dominant chamber of parliament. More recent example is The Human Rights Act (1998), which enshrined key rights in UK law. Secondly there is Common Law, Common law includes legal principles that have been developed and applied by UK courts.