Final Project: Multiple Sclerosis Introduction: Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease that distresses the brain and spinal cord, central nervous system. In MS the person’s immune system produces cells and proteins that attack the myelin that is a fatty tissue that protects the nerve fibers. There is no known cause of Multiple sclerosis and this disease is not inherited. When the nerve tissue is damaged the signals either slow down or stop completely. The damage is cause by inflammation and is located anywhere along the brain, spinal cord, or optic nerve.
With MS being such a variable disease with no concrete evidence as to the cause doctors, have to use various strategies in making a proper diagnosis. These procedures include but are not limited to a full neurological examination including an MRI, and spinal fluid analysis using a spinal tap. An MRI or Magnetic Resonance Imaging is a preferred method of diagnosing and monitoring the disease as the MRI offers the most noninvasive and most sensitive way of looking at the central nervous system. There are two types of scan they are T1 weighted and T2 weighted. An MRI does not use radiation but measures the water content in tissue and since the myelin that protects the nerve fibers made of fatty tissue and repels water the MRI looks for these areas that are now holding water.
A person’s own immune system attacks the myelin sheath that surrounds the axon of the nerves. Once the myelin sheath is damaged, the nerves cannot transmit signals properly. Nerve damage leads to muscle weakness, loss of reflexes, and numbing or tingling of the hands and feet. This is caused by the muscles loss of ability to respond to the brains commands. GBS is not often fatal but in rare cases people have died from GBS.
PS124: Introduction to Psychology June 30, 2014 The disorder of the brain that I am interested in is a stroke. Stroke affects more than just the brain as well. A stroke occurs when blood flow to part of the brain is suddenly interrupted or when blood vessel in the brain bursts. Brain cells need oxygen and they die when they no longer receive oxygen and nutrients from blood. When your brain cells die from a stroke, abilities controlled by that area of the brain are lost.
CFTR regulates the secretion of chloride and sodium ions inside and out of the body. Poor regulation in CF sufferers results in excessive sweat, digestive fluid and mucus. Bacteria that normally inhabit the mucus of the lungs grow out of control causing
Alzheimer’s disease- Alzheimer’s disease is caused by the build-up of proteins in the brain which form into “plagues and tangles”, these in turn will cause a loss of connection between nerve cells and cause cell death and loss of brain tissue. Early symptoms of Alzheimer’s can be lapses in memory, problems with language (forgetting words or their meanings) and poor visuospatial skill’s (gaging distance, ability to see in 3D). People can also suffer from depression or anxiety, they could become withdrawn and lose interest in daily activities or hobbies or have poor initiation. As the disease progresses sufferers can develop more pronounced memory problems and lose a sense of time and place, they may forget where they are or have difficulties recognising their own family. Vascular dementia- Vascular dementia is caused by the flow of blood and oxygen to the brain being interrupted causing the death of brains cells, this is called an infarct.
Multiple Sclerosis is provoked by damage to the myelin sheath which is the protective covering that surrounds the nerve cells. When the sheath is damaged the nerve impulses may slow down or even stop. Inflammation is what causes the nerve damage. When the nervous system is attacked by its own immune cells, inflammation occurs. Repeated inflammation can occur along any area of the brain, spinal cord, or the optic nerve (PubMed Health 1747) (PubMed Health 1463).
Sickle Cell Anemia Bill Hammond 1/17/13 Akron Institute Anatomy & Physiology II What is the disorder? The disorder is caused when red blood cells form a crescent, sickle like shape. These cells cause anemia by how easily they break apart. These damaged cells only live about 10-20 days and they also block blood flow by clumping together and sticking to blood vessel walls. The blockage of blood flow can cause severe pain and permanent damage to the brain, heart, lungs, kidneys, liver, spleen, and bones.
9/24/14 Sean Howard Ap Pysch Current Event The article that I chose for the current event is about Alzheimer’s disease and how it sets in and what it does in the body. Alzheimer’s disease is a disease that damages and affects the neurons that lead up into the hippocampus and other parts of the brain. Alzheimer’s has two main causes; the first one is where twisted nerve cell fibers slow down the message from the neurons to parts of the brain. The other cause of Alzheimer’s is where a sticky protein forms on the neurons and stops the flow of the message. This prohibits the neurons message from getting passed on, eventually stopping the hippocampus and memory parts of the brain because they are not receiving any signals.
Multiple Sclerosis is a disease that bewilders us all. There is no known cause. We do know that MS (multiple sclerosis) is a disease where the myelin breaks down and is replaced by scar tissue. The demyelination can slow down or block the flow of signals to and from the central nervous system to the rest of the body, impairing such functions as vision, strength, and coordination. While we do know what MS is we still don't know why, where and when people contract the disease.