Whether an individual will adapt or stray from the law is all determined by the balance of these two attitudes. If a person engages with an excess of this newfound attitude, then criminal behavior is more likely to manifest. Sutherland basically framed his various ideas into a broad theory that would encompass numerous realities known about criminality into one large arrangement. Essentially, the key postulation regarding this theory is whether or not deviant conduct is learned through association. One major criticism of the differential association theory is that it is very difficult to actually put to a test.
The origin of social disorganization theory can be traced to the work of Shaw and McKay, who concluded that disorganized areas marked by divergent values and transitional populations produce criminality. Strain theories view crime as resulting from the anger people experience over their inability to achieve legitimate social and economic success. These theories hold that most people share common values and beliefs but the ability to achieve them is differentiated throughout the social structure. The best known strain theory is Merton's, which describes what happens when people have inadequate means to satisfy their needs. Cultural deviance theories hold that a unique value system develops in lower class areas.
Personality is the major motivational element that drives behavior within individuals. 3. Normality is generally defined by social consensus. 4. Crimes then would result from abnormal, dysfunctional, or inappropriate mental processes within the personality of the individual.
My objective for this paper is to make use of criminologist theories to explain why these three individuals made the decisions to pursue a criminal career and what factors influenced them in following this path. Social Disorganization Theory Criminologists, look at many things when trying to negate what causes people to deviate from social and group norms with regards to their criminal behavior. It follows that sociologists have
In this essay we will assess the usefulness of these functionalist theories, and look at how it helps us explain crime. One functionalist who tried to explain crime is Merton and his strain theory, the strain theory argues that people engage in the deviant behaviour when they are unable to achieve socially approved goals by legitimate means. Merton explanation combines 2 elements; structural factors- society’s unequal opportunity structure, cultural factors- strong emphasis to achieve goals and weak emphasis on using legit means. Merton uses the strain theory to explain some patterns of crime in society, he argues a person’s positioning in society affects the way they adapt or respond to the strain to anomie. Merton gives 5 different types of adaption; Conformity- the individual accepts socially acceptable goal and achieves it through legitimate means, Innovation- Individual accepts the role of success and wealth but uses illegitimate means to achieve them, Ritualism- Individual give up on legitimate goals but still follow strictly to the rules, Retreatism- Individuals reject legitimate goals and means of achieving them e.g drug addicts, the final type is Rebellion- Individuals reject existing goals and means but replace them with new one in desire to bring about revolutionary change.
According to Sutherland, differential association refers to the principle that criminal acts are related to an individual’s frequent or constant exposure to antisocial attitudes or values. Proposition 1- Criminal behaviour is learnt. The basic argument of differential association is that, like all forms of behaviour, criminal behaviour is learnt from other people, thus eliminating the roles of heredity, human nature and innovation as causes of deviant behaviour. Example: Newly recruited gang member will learn from others how to commit crime – hot wire a car. Proposition 2 – Criminal behaviour is learnt through interaction with other people by means of a process of communication.
Edwards and Shillingford (2008) state that “the central premise of choice theory is that people are motivated by five basic needs; survival, love and belonging, power, freedom, and fun. A criminal is able to consider both personal and situational factors, situational factors being efficiency of police force or the level of security; this is the rational choice theory McCormick & Siegel, 2006). Social processes and social structures can all be big factors in this rational choice that criminals make before committing a crime. Crime trends seem to be determined by the presence of targets, motivated criminals, and absence of guardians. All these determinates are examples of how social and economic factors influence the general crime rates.
First I would like to start by giving a brief definition of what or better said – how, criminology differs from victimology. Criminology is more concerned with the origin of crime along the extent and nature of crime. Criminology places an emphasis on studying the offender, the crimes, and the motives behind the crime. It is also the study of how the public and criminal justice system responds to the offender. Victimology plays a very important role in criminology and is used to determine what the victim’s behavior has to do with their risk of being victimized.
Contrast the functionalist and conflict theories of crime. The functionalist would argue that those who transgress are usually dealt with by the law and that order is restored. The conflict theorist would argue that the law enforcement system perpetuates the inequalities and would give the example of how many white-collar crimes go unpunished. Read more: http://www.ehow.com/how_8586125_compare-contrast-functionalist-conflict-theories.html#ixzz2iJlpn5zx Contrast the functionalist and conflict theories of crime. The functionalist would argue that those who transgress are usually dealt with by the law and that order is restored.
Deviance is the recognized violation of cultural norms. Crime is a type of deviance. Crime is the violation of a society’s formally enacted criminal law. Criminal deviance spans from minor traffic violations to sexual assault to murder. In the case of serious deviance, action may be brought by the criminal justice system – “a formal response by police, courts, and prison officials to alleged violations of the law.” The key elements of the U.S. criminal justice system include police, courts, and the punishment of convicted offenders.