This paper is an expression of my current thinking regarding a theoretical perspective of individual counseling. My approach is founded on understanding of irrational beliefs and the implication of this on thinking, feelings and behavior. Combining the rational therapy process with a focus on emotions creates a personalized approach to therapy. This focus complements the three components of personality, thinking, feelings, and behavior by providing depth to the reason behind our thoughts. Individual’s feelings are the first indicator that something is not right in the individual “system”.
Faris Feroz Discuss One of the Psychological Approach to Treating Abnormality The behavioural approach to abnormality is that abnormal behaviour is the consequence of abnormal learning from the environment. They are learnt in the through classical conditioning, operant conditioning and social learning. Systematic desensitization is a technique based on the principals of classical conditioning and what is learnt (conditioned) can be unlearnt, through a step-by-step method. One of the most successful behavioural therapies is systematic desensitization. This therapy uses classical and operant conditioning to change the behaviour response to certain stimuli and is designed to reduce distressing levels of anxiety.
The client who wishes to quit smoking could reason that smoking is unhealthy for them and their loved ones. The therapist should then dig deeper and ask when they smoke more. It could be that smoking is their only successful way of dealing with stress. As well as discovering the reason why the prospective client has thought about hypnotherapy, the therapist is also finding out if their skills are
Some people will endlessly 'damn' themselves, seeing themselves as no good in every situation, REBT encourages clients to develop an unconditional acceptance of themselves, and recognise that everybody makes mistakes. It is the task of cognitive therapies to directly challenge the negative assumptions, clients are encouraged to monitor and challenge their negative automatic thoughts and to accept more rational explanations of their experience and behaviour, because therapists using REBT are attempting to change thinking patterns, they tend to be more argumentative and confrontational they do this by encouraging the patient to dispute these believes, Logical Disputing-self defeating beliefs do not follow logically from the information available, Empirical Disputing- self defeating beliefs may not be consistent with reality and Pragmatic Disputing- the lack of usefulness of self defeating beliefs. Effective disputing changes self-defeating beliefs into more rational ones. The
Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) challenges the patients negative thoughts and replaces them with constructive positive thinking which leads to healthier behaviour. People rarely realise that they have a problem with their thinking so this is the main thing that therapists work on - making the maladaptive thoughts conscious. The therapist should challenge these thoughts, once made obvious to the patient, which would lead to them understanding that there is no basis for them to think in a negative way - effectively making the problem disappear. CBT works by the therapist helping their client identify the negative thoughts they have about the word, themselves and the future. The client also learns what the consequences of these thoughts are/could be.
What is ‘Attributional’ therapy in your own words (5) 1 Cognitive Behavioural Therapy is a form of psychotherapy developed from a combination of cognitive therapy and behavioural therapy. The aim of CBT is to change unhealthy/faulty thinking and behaviours. The approach is based on the idea that our thoughts cause our feelings and the resulting behaviours rather than external events. By identifying and challenging unhealthy or faulty thinking patterns and beliefs the thinking patterns can be replaced by more rational and healthy alternatives. 2 CBT can be used with many different problem areas including depression, anxiety, anger and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS).
When a person suffers with psychological distress the way in which they interpret situations can become skewed, which in turn has a negative impact on the actions they take. He named these cognitions "automatic thoughts" because he believed that people were not necessarily aware that the cognitions existed, but that they could identify these types of thoughts when questioned closely. Beck believed that pushing his clients to identify these automatic thoughts was integral to overcoming a particular difficulty (Westbrook et al, 2007). Beck was later influenced by Ellis in his work around Behavioural Therapy and the idea that people can overcome psychological issues by altering the way they perceive an experience and in turn use this to change their attitude and behaviour towards experiences which enable the person to have positive feelings instead of negative. Becks studies found that patients’ automatic thoughts fell into three categories, the patients had negative ideas about themselves, the world and/or the future and these thoughts could lead to anxiety and depression.
Individuals do this to make the pain go away which ultimately they really just defense mechanisms (Gottdiener, Murawski, & Kucharski, 2008). “According to psychoanalytic conflict theory, defense mechanisms are activated when the individual experiences any form of displeasure, especially anxiety or depressive affect” (Brenner, 1982). Failures of ego control are related to individuals with substance use disorders. “Ego control refers to the efforts of the individual to control thoughts, emotions, impulses and ability to perform tasks and attention processes” (Baumeister & Vohs, 2004, p. 2). The article also addresses the result of consistent failures in ego control.
There are two key terms that help us to understand behaviour which are thinking patterns and perception. The cognitive model believes that abnormal behaviour is the result of irrational, maladaptive and disordered thought processes and perceptions of self. A man called Ellis implied that there were two routes of thinking, which are adaptive and maladaptive. By saying this he also suggested that everyone is capable of taking either of these two routes. He also suggested that if people think rationally then they will behave rationally and therefore as a consequence they will be happy and competent.
Through this therapy, people can be guided to utilize their characteristics and potential in more constructive ways in daily life. b) The reason people become anxious is they have the desire to perform well and feel afraid of failure and mistakes. In Morita Therapy, anxiety and people’s desire to have a better life are both natural feelings of human beings just like the coins which have two sides. Patients can get out of the vicious cycle between attention and feelings of intensify by understanding the mechanism of anxious. c) Consequently, when people accept these feelings as their natural feelings and when they stop attempting to get rid of anxiety and fears, they will get