1. What is the order model of society? On what kinds of social phenomena does it focus? What social phenomena are neglected from this perspective? The order model of society demonstrates society as a cooperative and stable system, and any problems are immediately attributed to the people and not the society.
As sociologists our main goal is to understand social situations and look for repeating patterns in society. Sociologists are engaged in rigorous scientific endeavour which requires objectivity and detachment. The main focus of sociology is the group and not the individual. Sociologists attempt to understand the forces that mold individuals, shape their behaviour and thus determine social events. Through a variety of experiences we develop a set of ideas about the world and how it operates.
Compare and contrast the views of Goffman and Foucault on how social order is produced. Social order is described as ‘a stable social situation in which connections are maintained without change, or else change occurs in a predictable way’ (Taylor, 2009, p.173). Social order is often taken for granted as a part of everyday life and only becomes apparent when it is disrupted in some way, for example, a road traffic accident. Goffman and Foucault are both concerned with the question, “How is society made and remade?” In particular, both are interested in how social order is produced and reproduced. The two theorists examine the question in their own ways and put forward two very different theories.
‘Social norms’ are the foundational notions of the society (Horne 2007), defined as – “that each individual in the society finds it in his interest to follow the social standard behaviour”. i.e., norms are the “acceptable standards of behaviour within a group that are shared by the group’s members” (Robbins 1989), which effectively controls the individual and group behaviour in certain social situations (Hackman 1976). It refers to a form of informal social control (Feldman 1984) that obviates the need for more formal, legal and institutionalised sanctions. Adding to it, Onyx and Bullen (2000) defines that, “generally unwritten but commonly understood formulas determining the expected pattern of behaviour in a given social context which forms
Including social institutions, a system of behavioral and relationship patterns, having specific roles to perform to make society. I believe the Functionalist theory best describes society. Personally I believe society can only be stable through social order. Including that part is primarily institutions of society. Amongst family, community, religion, academia, business, media, and government are all equal but, when one gains predominance tyranny always emerges.
Berger and Luckmann (1967:15-22) argue that social relativity is inherent in reality and knowledge, hence, its collection is defined by social contexts imperative for sociological analysis. They contend that analysis should be conscious of varieties of knowledge in human societies to maintain their position on the social construction of reality. For them, there is a relationship between human thoughts, history and social context. They draw on Mannheim’s work that society is imperative for the content of human ideas to argue that knowledge is always from a particular position. The influence of ideology can only be mitigated by the analysis of diverse socially
The cultural aspect of the sociological imagination involves the “learned ideas, values, knowledge, rules and customs shared by members of a collectivity” (Holmes et al, 2003, pg 11). Culture in the sociological imagination allows the comprehension of why people hold certain ideas and values, and follows certain rules and customs. The critical aspect of the sociological imagination stipulates the initiative to analyze. Although it is, by human nature, to assume the meaning of actions carried out by people, C. Wright Mills claims that assumptions are not enough. Through assumptions, many things are taken for granted and the true meaning is not revealed.
Browne once said "sociological perspectives centre on how much freedom or control the individual had to influence society" He goes on to comment on the two main approaches "structuralism is concerned with the overall structure of society and the way social institutions act as a constraint, or limit and control individual behaviour". Structuralism offers a view of the individual being controlled by the society they live in, Marx and Durkheim are similar in that they can both be described as structuralists, however their individual ideas are somewhat different. Functionalism was developed by Emile Durkheim, he believed like Comte that sociology should be viewed as a precise science and that society should be studied objectively. Durkheim placed an enormous amount of emphasis on social facts which he saw as ways of acting, thinking or feeling that are external to individuals and have their own reality outside the lives and perceptions of individual people. This is known as the macro approach, which places a great emphasis on the structure of society and how an individual operates with that society.
Sociology and the Family SOC101: Introduction to Sociology (GSP1114A) Instructor: Abstract Sociology is an area of study based on reality. Its observations and applications are founded in reality, and its theories have been derived out of various experiences of reality and now affect common perception of the same reality. The three main theories of sociology are the theories of Functionalism, Conflict Theory, and Interactionism. They give credibility to a different understanding of and toward the different sociological institutions that are in place. By understanding the concepts of the each theories a person can see how they can affect the social institution, such as the family, differently and can present a more much better understanding of the concepts as they apply to reality.
Durkheim and Parsons were concerned with research that institutions have on society. Functionalism is often referred to the consensus theory as it does not address conflict within society. Durkheim (1892) was interested in the effects of laws, religion and education has on society. Functionalists see social order as an ‘organic analogy’, like a human body, in which all parts of society inter-relate and combine in various ways. To make society work, it has to function in harmony, like a body; this is called the consensus theory.