Cytokine Case Study

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Quetext About FAQ Contact INTRODUCTION OF CYTOKINES: The term ‘Cytokine’ originates from mixture of two Greek words ‘cyto’ meaning ‘cell’ and ‘kinos’ meaning ‘movement’.These are signalling molecules that help in cell-cell communication in immune response and stimulate the movement of cells toward the sites of infections, trauma and inflamation. Cytokines are composed mostly of peptides, proteins and glycoproteins. These are obtained from a wide range of immune cells such as lymphocytes, macrophages and mast cells as well as fibroblasts, endothelial cells and stromal cells. Types of Cytokines: Following are different types of cytokines: 1. Chemokines: These are the type of cytokines that bring cells to the site of infection utilizing the process…show more content…
5. Colony Stimulating factors: These are mainly involved in the division and differentiation of stem cells in bone marrow. 6. Tumor Necrosis Factor: These are cytokines that induce apoptosis in abnormal cells such as tumor cells. TNF-alpha is a remarkable example. Functions of Cytokines: • These are important in disease and health, such as in inflamation, infection, sepsis, immune responses, trauma, reproduction and cancer. • If Cytokines act on the cells that secrete them, the action is known as ‘autocrine action’, on nearby cells termed as ‘paracrine action’, and on distant cells termed as ‘endocrine action’. • These generally functions as intercellular messenger molecules that initiate particular biological activities by binding to the receptor of the particular cells. Cytokines Related Diseases: 1.Rheumatoid Arthritis: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease which is characterized by joint inflamation, production of broad range of cytokines and ultimately joints destruction. It shows a syndrome of stiffness, pain and symmetrical ‘synovitis’ (inflamation of the synovial membrane) of diarthrodial joints (such as knee etc). The imbalance between anti-inflamatory and pro-inflamatory cytokines…show more content…
 Sulpha salazine. But these drugs have only partial clinical advantage and have more toxicity. 2.Tuberculosis and Cytokines: Introduction: Tuberculosis is a disease of the lungs. It is a communicable chronic granulomatous disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It remains a major health problem. At the same time two billion people are infected by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Actually, the immune system detects the presence of the pathogen but fails to eliminate it. Disease reactivates later once the immune system become weak. T Lymphocyte Population as Mediators of Protection from TB: The immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis depends on T cells. It consists of following cells:  CD4 T cells recognize antigenic peptides of gene products which are encoded by the MHC-II.  CD8 T cells recognize antigenic peptides of MHC class I.  Ysigma T cells recognize phospholigands and molecules that are not known thus far.  CD1 restricted T cells recognize glycolipids which are abundant components of cell wall of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. As Mycobacterium tuberculosis resides within the compartment of phagosomes, so it’s proteins have easy access to the MHC-I processing machinery, but it is still not understood that how bacterial glycolipids are presented

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