To begin with, Confucius taught his followers that morality “...was considered the utmost importance above everything else.” (Confucius - Biography). He believed, and taught, that when people properly understood morality, everything else could be harmonized. One of his most famous lessons about morality is, “‘never impose on others what you would not choose for yourself.’” (Confucius - Biography). It compares to the modern day “Golden Rule” which states: one should treat others how one would like to be treated. Confucius was more about “...the virtuous perspective of the moral person rather than general rules about right and good.” (The Confucius School) and the morals of people.
They were the relationship between the ruler and the ruled; father and son; older brother and younger brother; husband and wife and the relationship between friend and friend. In these relationships, there was an inferior person who was expected to respect the superior. And in return the superior must help and set an example for the inferior. In Daoism, however, the followers are more directly in touch with nature. They believed that the rules of Confucianism were a human creation and didn’t follow nature.
This can be interpreted as self interest is part of, or is, morality, which can lead to justifying actions which go against the consensus of society e.g. lying, stealing and killing. For this reason Kant believes it is better to live according to reason as opposed to desire. For example, if you wanted to buy something which was more expensive than you could afford your reason would tell you it wasn’t possible to have it, not desire as it cannot realise this. Kant sees this as similar to making moral decisions as the moral choice is not always the desired choice and therefore not in your self interest.
We are behaving morally, on the other hand, if we resist because we believe it is wrong to steal and that by stealing we would be treating someone else as a means to an end (e.g. for our own enrichment) which would be wrong in itself. Kant then goes on to argue that in an ideal world (one in which good was always rewarded and evil punished) moral behaviour (which would be in accordance with the categorical imperative) would always lead to happiness. In the real world, however, this does not necessarily happen. Therefore there must be
In terms of its significant and realistic thoughts in Confucianism, the ultimate virtue was ren, a term that has been translated as humanity, perfect goodness, benevolence, human-heatedness, and nobility (Pre-modern East Asia, Page 27). A good case is a conversation about a person of humanity cares about other. The conversation is “when you go out, treat everyone as if you were welcoming a great guest. Employ people as though you were conducting a great sacrifice. Do not do unto others what you would not have them do unto you” (Pre-modern East Asia, Page 27).
Robert Louden stated that as virtue ethics is focused on the individual, it neither resolves nor attempts to resolve big moral dilemmas. It may help the moral agent virtuous but it does not give any answerers relating to an ethical crisis. Scholars such as Aristotle, however, would disagree with this point saying that each individual has to habitually do what is right for a period of time as a result of habitually doing what is right we naturally do what is good. In time, this leads to the growth and well-being of everyone in society. Because of this I would say that this weakness isn’t strong enough to say
Discipline equips the youth with the necessary discernment between good and bad conduct. Though conscience is able to show which influences are right and wrong, discipline goes another step to avoid negative influences but accept positive ones. However discipline cannot be achieved by self-meditation. Rather I would advise that persons in their prime take mentors of good reputation or moral character in order to imitate them. It is difficult sticking to dos and don’ts because we fail to see the end result but a close look at a role model who is respected and respectable can influence the life of the youth for the better.
Finally, he explains that you must take yourself how you are, and not for someone you’re not, which is why imitation is suicide. I agree with Ralph Waldo Emerson because I believe trying to be somebody who you are not sacrifices your own self-worth. However, what I do disagree with is that we still have control over who we are and who we become. I believe trying to be someone you’re not sacrifices your own self-worth. We each have our own strengths and weaknesses and we need to focus on our strengths to amplify them.
In Confucianism they believe people will follow their leader. On the contrary, Legalism, believes that people should not be given the choice to do good because if they have that choice it’s very unlikely they will try to do good. The law has to prevent people from doing any bad, and the consequences were very harsh, so that people will do the right thing. As you can see, they both have very different beliefs. But one thing they have in common is that they both want people to do good, and do the right thing.
Another reason why we believe Daoism to be better than Confucianism is they believe the ideal government should rule by using measures of correction, for example weapons of war may be used with crafty dexterity. However, the kingdom makes its own freedom from action and purpose. The final reason we believe Daoism is better than Confucianism is the focus on nature and natural images. Several examples: For Daoists, the path of water down a mountainside, following the route of least resistance without being told or forced, exemplifies Ziran, or spontaneous naturality. Daoists believed that by relaxing and allowing events to take their course everything will eventually fall into place, which is “Wu wei er bu wei” by doing nothing everything will be done.