Bipolar Disorders: Manic-Depressive Di

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My interest is Bipolar Disorders, previously referred to as Manic-Depressive Disorder. The symptoms present with mood swings ranging from the lows of depression to the highs of mania. The mood swings may occur just a few times a year, or as often as several times a day. Bipolar disorder can cause symptoms of depression and mania at the same time. Bipolar disorders are listed in the DSM-IV as mood disorders. The subtypes are Bipolar I Disorder, Bipolar II Disorder, Cyclothymia, and Bipolar Disorder Not Otherwise Specified. The following are specifiers for Bipolar I and II. Mild, Moderate, Severe Without Psychotic Features, Severe With Psychotic Features, In Partial Remission, In Full Remission, With Catatonic Features and With Postpartum Onset.…show more content…
Manic episodes can be severe and dangerous. Some signs and symptoms of the depressive phase of bipolar disorder can include suicidal ideations, sadness, hopelessness, irritability, fatigue, suicidal thoughts or behavior, loss of interest in activities once enjoyed, anxiety, guilt, sleep problems, low appetite or increased appetite, problems concentrating, chronic pain with no known cause, frequent absences from work or school and poor performance at work or school. Symptoms in children and adolescents include explosive temper, rapid mood shifts, reckless behaviors and aggression. These shifts in mood occur within hours or less. It would not be uncommon for a child to have periods of silliness, bouts of crying and outbursts of anger all in one twenty four hour…show more content…
These include biological differences, neurotransmitters and hormones. People with bipolar disorder appear to have physical changes in their brains. The significance of these changes is still uncertain but may eventually help pinpoint causes. An imbalance in naturally occurring brain chemicals (neurotransmitters) seem to play a significant role in bipolar disorder and other mood disorders. Imbalanced hormones may also be a culprit in triggering bipolar disorder. Bipolar disorder is more common in people who have a blood relative with the condition. Much research has been done to find genes possibly involved in causing bipolar disorder. Environmental conditions such as stress, abuse, and traumatic experiences are another possible aspect to consider. I found no reports indicating a difference in Bipolar I Disorder based on race or ethnicity. About 10-15% of adolescents with recurrent Major Depressive Episodes will go on to develop Bipolar I Disorder and Mixed Episodes appear to be more prevalent in adolescents and young adults than older adults. There is gender equality in Bipolar I Disorder. The first episode in males is more likely to be a Manic Episode while first episodes in females are more likely Major Depressive Episode. This difference could well be hormonal, such as women with postpartum and

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