(D1) outline how a named mental disorder is diagnosed. Schizophrenia is a long-term mental health condition that causes a range of different psychological symptoms. These include: · hallucinations[->2] - hearing or seeing things that do not exist · delusions - unusual beliefs that are not based on reality and often contradict the evidence · muddled thoughts based on the hallucinations or delusions · changes in
For a person to have controlled voluntary muscle movement, then the combination of dopamine and acetylcholine is necessary. When there are imbalances in the level of neurotransmitters, it will cause harmful effects to the person who has the imbalance. An imbalance in neurotransmitters can cause both physiological and mental illness. For example, if a person does not have enough dopamine, then it appears to cause the person to have the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. Parkinson’s disease causes a person to have involuntary muscle
Extreme use of alcohol and other drugs can damage the brain and can sometimes cause hallucinations or other symptoms of a mental disorder but is only usually caused by excessive use of alcohol and drugs. Another cause for a mental disorder is infection. Infection can lead to the rise of mental illnesses and schizophrenia has been linked to flu. Another physical cause of a mental disorder is the biochemistry including neurotransmitters and hormones. Neurotransmitters are known to have an impact on behaviour such as high levels of nor adrenaline and dopamine are seen when a depressed mood is evident e.g.
In terms of biochemistry, chemical imbalances in the brain may be involved in certain mental illnesses. Neurotransmitters, for example, play a very important part in behaviour – one theory links depression to low levels of the neurotransmitters serotonin and noradrenaline. However, the relationship between neurotransmitters and depression is very complex and therefore, more research is needed to discover the exact link between this and the disorder. People suffering from depression, also often have high levels of the hormone cortisol. Cortisol is sometimes referred to as a ‘stress hormone’ because it is produced in times of stress.
So again strongly suggests that low activity noradrenaline, is a factor contributing to the cause of depression. Support for this explanation has also come from research studies. Findings from psychologists , have led to the idea that depression is caused by a depletion of these naimes , especially serotonin and noradrenaline (in which I have discussed), however this idea is too simplistic, when infact its more complex than that. A example of why it is more complex is from the original theory, is that anti depressants do
With this being the case, antipsychotic medications often have side effects that need to be monitored regularly by the health professionals (Young et al, 2011). Compliance is often a challenge with patients either because of the unmanageable side effects they experience or through limited insight. It is a role of the health professionals involved in the care to closely monitor this behaviour, as the effectiveness of the treatment may be affected (Young et al, 2011). Keller, Drexler &Lichtenberg (2009) discuss the benefits of treating paranoid schizophrenia with atypical antipsychotic medication clozapine and Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT). However both forms of treatment are linked with harsh side effects.
With the medication treatment the patient is giving antipsychotic drugs, is usually the most common in treating schizophrenia. Some of these medications include: Chlorpromazine (Thorazine), Haloperidol (Haldol), Perphenazine (Etrafon, Trilafon), Fluphenazine (Prolixin) and Risperdal (Dryden-Edwards, 2011). Although they seem to be effective in suppressing the disorder, sometimes the side effects can be worse than the disease itself. The antipsychotic drugs can sometimes leave patients in an almost “zombie-like” state, most common with Thorazine. It leaves the patient fairly lethargic, and sometimes can even heighten the original symptoms.
Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing is somewhat controversial but also supported by clinical trial data” (Kelly, 2006). CBT is a treatment which involves changing the thinking patterns of the patient to improve symptoms. Cognitive behavioral therapy shows patients to react differently to the circumstances and bodily sensations that trigger panic attacks and other anxiety symptoms. However, patients also learn to understand how their thinking patterns add to their symptoms and how to change their thoughts so that symptoms are less likely to
This initially results in a crude form of the herb called hypericum extract. Hypericum extract is thought to work in a similar way to antidepressant medicines, by affecting levels of neurotransmitters such as serotonin in the brain (however, the exact mechanism of action is not known). Drug… Herbal Interactions: Taking St. John's wort along with alprazolam (Xanax) might decrease the effectiveness of alprazolam (Xanax). Taking St. John's wort along with aminolevulinic acid might increase the chances of sunburn, blistering or rashes on areas of skin exposed to sunlight. Taking St. John's wort along with birth control pills might decrease the effectiveness of birth control pills.