The most senior members are the prime minister, secretaries of state, Ministers of state and parliamentary under-secretaries. The Prime minister has the duty of being in charge and selects the other members of government. There are many important departments in central government and they all are crucial but are different roles in controlling the country. The departments include home office and department of health, but also involve sport and media and the department of culture. These departments are ruled by Secretaries state that has complete liability and are staffed by impartial civil servants who get their income from money provided by parliament.
Each state organization has its own peculiarities, but most state parties are headed by state committees sometimes known as stat central committees drawn from county, congressional district, and municipal party officials and led by a state party chair. D. Local Party Organizations 1. The higher levels of party organization have an incentive to work with local parties, since the national parties ultimately rely heavily upon local personnel to get out the vote on Election
To What Extent Are Backbench MPs Lobby Fodder? We’re led to believe that the MPs we elect to form Parliament actively participate in the governing of our country. Yet in reality, most of the power lies with the executive and the influence of a backbencher is thus lessened. Are they a loyal party drone? Do they represent the constituents effectively?
There are many arguments that a lot of the laws being passed through the House of Commons don’t have approval of the people. The first reason for this is that government has a majority in the House of Commons. This means that if the government backbenchers and ministers vote with the party they will certainly pass the legislation through. The reason that the ministers are loyal to the party is something called “collective responsibility”. This is when a minister has to publically support the party’s policies and have to vote with the party or they get fired.
Like presidents, modern prime ministers can generate different political resources through these different roles and the techniques required by them. At the same time and in similar fashion to presidential politics, prime ministers are increasingly monitored and assessed according to criteria that are quite different to those experienced by senior colleagues, also like Presidents a modern day prime minister is often voted in due to factors that have nothing/ little to do with their political agendas, for example in 1997 Tony Blair
"William Safire, in his Safire's Political Dictionary, defines "machine politics" as "the election of officials and the passage of legislation through the power of an organization created for political action." Hierarchy and discipline are hallmarks of political machines. "It generally means strict organization", (Safire ,1). The machine here is of course a political machine which by definition in US politics is a party organization headed by a single boss or small autocratic group, that commands enough votes to maintain political and administrative control of a city, county or state. In his Political Dictionary William Safire defines “Machine Politics” as the election of officials and the passage of legislation through the power of an organization created for political action.
Most bills that are passed by parliament are government bills; however, some bills that are passed through parliament are private members bills. There are also private bills which normally only affect certain private interests and can be introduced by MPs, usually on behalf of a company. These are not usually matters of public policy but are usually for matters such as road building. Unfortunately, bills through parliament can take a lot of time to become legislation. This is because there are many stages which the bill must go through which includes the House of Lords stage by which the bill may be rejected or amended (this may only occur three times).
Some pay more attention than others, but they all have to consider the views of the folks back home. Congress is also organized primarily along party lines, so party membership is an important determinant of a member’s vote. Each party develops its own versions of many important bills, and party leaders actively pressure members to vote according to party views. It is not surprising that representatives and senators vote along party lines about three-fourths of the time. Finally, what if a representative or senator seriously disagrees with the views of his or her constituents on a particular issue?
A party identification (PID) or long-term attachment that summarizes a person’s outlook and attitude on the merits of a political party is the most influential factor in the voting polls but not to me. Because I have seen and experienced different governments around the world, I have grown to believe in more than a party. I know I am not the only one. Each year more and more Americans are going through the process of dealingnment which means they are losing their identity with a political party. Even then, there are still a percentage of Americans that are strong partisans who feel their party affiliation is on top of everything.
Proportional Representation (PR) is the principle behind a number of electoral systems, all of which attempt to ensure that the outcome of the election reflects the proportion of support gained by each competing group. PR contrasts to the Majoritarian principle, where whichever party or candidate obtains a plurality of votes within any given constituency wins that contest outright. Majoritarianism is the principle that underpins the First-Past-The-Post system that is used for elections to the House of Commons, along with other systems including alternative vote, bloc vote and various single member constituency systems. Similarly, there are a number of different systems based on PR. A simple party-list PR system is used in the UK for the European Parliament.