The paper discs were dipped in the samples given, one being a Yeast solution and the other a Catalase solution. After that, the discs were then immersed into the H2O2 solution. The oxygen produced from the enzyme reaction will form on the disc and cause it to float upwards to the surface of the H2O2 solution. Through these procedures we can investigate the effects of substrate concentration on the rate of reaction. We can manipulate the substrate concentration by varying the concentration of H2O2 taken during each trial of the experiment and measure the rate of reaction by measuring the time taken for the paper disc to float to the surface.
Effect of Enzyme Activity on Temperature Aim: The aim of this experiment is to investigate how effectively the enzyme amylase breaks down starch at different temperatures Research Question: How does the increase in temperature affect the time taken for amylase to breakdown 2ml of starch? Purpose: Background Information: Enzymes are biological catalysts that comprise the largest and most highly specialized class of protein molecules. Enzymes act as catalysts to increase the rates of chemical reactions. A fundamental property of enzymes is their specificity. Various enzymes have unique shape and chemical composition that creates a site, called and active site.
This indicates the presence of fatty acids. Test for Rancidity (kreis kerr): Kreis kerr test is a qualitative test for the presence of aldehydes and ketones in fats and oils, created by its rancidity. The term "rancidity" is used to describe the development of bad flavors and odors in fats and oils. It may result either from hydrolysis of the triacylglycerol present in fats and oils or from oxidation of the unsaturated fatty acids present in the triacylglycerol. The former cause may be detected by an increase in the acid value of the sample.
It can be expected that once amylase reacts with the starch, maltose will then be broken down and less starch will be visible and more sugar will be apparent thus causing the solution mixed with iodine to become lighter and lighter. Materials and Methods Materials included: · · Rack of test tubes · Three spot plates · Hot plate · Large beaker for water bath · Amylase · Disposable droppers · Marker · Starch solution · Distilled water · IKI(dropper) · Benedict’s solution Method/Procedure 1. Identification of Starch To be able to identify the presence of starch, it was necessary to make a sample test by using IKI in wells on the spot plate. Three wells on the spot plate were filled with one drop of IKI each. In the first well two drops of water was mixed with the IKI to show what a negative
Once calculated, these results can be analyzed and will either validate or refute my hypothesis. Introduction (Library Research): Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is found in orange juice. In this experiment, orange juice made from the concentrate was measured for decreases/increases of off-flavours (furfural and α-terpineol) and for decreases/increases of ascorbic acid. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as well as hydrochloric acid (HCl) were added during separate trials to change the PH in the orange juice. An increase of PH from 3.2 to 4.2 enabled the protection of ascorbic acid levels, without increasing the levels of other enzymes.
It will, in fact, react with a variety of ring structures including its natural substrate, tyrosine, with one hydroxyl group, and catechol, a phenol with two hydroxyl groups. [pic] In the experiments below catechol is used as an artificial substrate for tyrosinase. In the presence of this enzyme catechol is oxidized to ortho-quinone, which immediately undergoes secondary reactions leading to the formation of strongly colored products. The formation of these products is very rapid and their measurement over time indicates the rate of enzyme activity. [pic] Question What is the rate of product formation during the first ten minutes of a reaction between the enzyme tyrosinase and the substrate catechol?
In solutions that are more acidic than pH 3.2, it is protonated to form a red dipolar ion. Thus, methyl orange can be used as an indicator for titrations that have end point in the pH 3.2- 4.4 region. The indicator is usually prepated as a0.01% solution in water. In higher concentrations in basic solution, of course, methyl orange appears orange. Acid-Base Indicator Properties of Methyl Orange [pic] Procedure Pretreatment before Diazotization 1.
Urea is formed in the liver as an end product of protein metabolism and is carried to the kidneys for excretion. Nearly all kidney diseases cause inadequate excretion of urea, elevating BUN levels in the blood. Urea production will be increased during increased protein catabolism and increased protein digestion or decrease in glomerular filtration rate.Serum urea is measured by enzymatic method.In this method, urea is hydrolyzed enzymatically by urease to yield ammonia and carbon dioxide. The ammonia thus produced is converted to glutamate in a reaction catalyzed by L-glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH).The reaction monitored by measureing the rate of decrease in absorbace at 340nm, due to NADH is oxidized to NAD
Procedure is to be repeated using temperature of 0o, 60o, and 80o C. Introduction Enzymes are single-chain or multiple chain proteins that act as biological catalysts with the inherent ability to promote specific chemical reactions in vivo, as well as in vitro. Like all catalysts enzymes work by lowering the activation energy required for the reaction to occur, this is achieved because enzymes facilitate the formation of the transition state from substrate to product. Enzymes have three distinctive characteristics: 1. High specificity The ability to select and thus promote a particular chemical reaction on a single or small number of structurally related molecules is a key aspect of enzyme mechanics. Invertase is the enzyme which catalyses the hydrolysis of the disaccharide sucrose, into the monomers of glucose and fructose; due to the high specificity of enzymes one would not expect invertase to catalyze the
INSTRUCTION Oils and fat quality. Lipid oxidation. Determination of peroxide value in fats and oil. It is arguable that the two most important chemical reactions that occur in food systems are lipid oxidation and non-enzymatic browning. This lab exercise focuses attention on the former reaction.