Experiment: Cyclohexanone from Cyclohexanol aq Abstract: The primary objective of this experiment was to create cyclohexene from the dehydration of cyclohexanol with phosphoric acid. Through the use of simple distillation it was possible to separate the solution. The Agilent 7890A Gas Chromatography System was used to determine the purity of the distillate which verified the success of the separation. Introduction: Alkenes can be prepared by from alcohols by an acid catalyzed dehydration reaction. In the experiment a secondary alcohol (cyclohexanol) is heated with acid (phosphoric acid).
For example, the reaction |BaCl2•2H2O ( BaCl2 + 2H2O |(2) | is reversible, and if water is added to the anhydrous salt BaCl2, formation of BaCl2•2H2O takes place: |BaCl2 + 2H2O ( BaCl2•2H2O |(3) | The reaction of dehydration of hydrated ferrous sulfate |FeSO4•7H2O ( FeSO4 + 7H2O |(4)
EXPERIMENT ( 3 ) Topic : The preparation of Phenyl Benzoate from benzoyl chloride Introduction : The preparation of phenyl benzoate (ester) from phenol and benzoyl chloride is an esterification. In this experiment, you are requested to prepare and purify phenyl benzoate by some techniques. Chemicals : Phenol, Benzoyl chloride, Dilute NaOH, Methanol Procedures : 1. Dissolve 1 g phenol in 15 cm3 dilute NaOH using a 50 cm3 quickfit flask. 2.
Calculate the molarity of the original vinegar solution and its concentration in gdm-3, given that it reacts with NaOH in a 1:1 ratio. 7. 2.5 g of a sample of ethanedioic acid, H2C2O4.nH2O, was dissolved in water and the solution made up to 250 cm3. This solution was placed in a burette and 15.8 cm3 were required to neutralise 25 cm3 of 0.1 moldm-3 NaOH. Given that ethanedioic acid reacts with NaOH
The carbonate anion test mixes 1 mL of test solution and drops of 6M HCl. The formation of bubbles shows the presence of carbonate (CO32-). The acetate anion test heats 2 mL of the test solution, 1 drop of 18M H2SO4, and 1 mL (100%) ethanol. A fruity smell, using the wafting technique, shows the presence of acetate
Bromination: Aniline reacts with bromine water at room temperature to give a white precipitate of 2,4,6 tribromoaniline. Nitration: Direct nitration of aniline yields tarry oxidation products in addition to the nitro derivatives. Moreover, in the strongly acidic medium, aniline is protonated to form the anilinium ion which is meta directing. That is why besides the ortho and para derivatives, significant amount of meta derivative is also formed. However, by protecting the –NH2 group by acetylation reaction with acetic anhydride, the nitration reaction can be controlled and the p-nitro derivative can be obtained as the major product.
Discussion and Conclusion In this experiment, the bromination of an alkene will be observed and a mechanism to account for the occurrence distribution of the products will be determined. In the first part of the experiment the 0.9 grams of E-stilbene will be put in a flask with 10ml of dichloromethane and then stirred to affect dissolution of the E-stilbene, since dichloromethane is a nonpolar solvent which can dissolve the nonpolar alkene. After the E-stilbene has been dissolved, 5ml of bromine in dichloromethane will be added, which will be stirred for thirty minutes until the solution is white, to ensure that the reaction has gone to completion. Bromine in dichloromethane is used because dichloromethane works as a good solvent for bromination reactions, due to the fact that it doesn’t react with bromine or most other organic molecules. The reddish color of bromine is discharged upon addition to an alkene as the bromine reacts, making this reaction a useful qualitative test for unsaturation when the reaction has gone to completion.
Introduction Nucelophilic substitutions are chemical reactions in which an electron rich nucleophile attacks the electron poor electrophile1. There are two classes of nucelophilic reactions – SN1, and SN2. The SN1 reaction is a 2 step, uni-molecular reaction, which is independent of the nucleophile. It requires a highly substituted electrophile since there is a formation of a carbocation in its rate determining step, good polar protic solvents which stabilize the carbocation and a good leaving group1. On the other hand, a SN2 reaction is a concerted, bimolecular reaction which has one slow, transition state1.
The mechanism for the reduction of a ketone by sodium borohydride: (1) Method (Based on Chemistry Laboratory Manual): 1. 0.4510g of benzophenone was dissolved in 5 cm3 of ethanol in boiling tube containing a magnetic stirrer bar. 2. O.1249g of sodium borohydride was added and left for 30 minutes. 3.
Once it formed, it had been filter to obtain benzoic acid form the solution. In conclusion, the benzoic acid had been purifying by comparing the actual IR and the melting point to the experiment IR and melting point. As the IR contained the broad OH band in the 3000 cm-1 and have C=O at 1617 cm-1. The melting point are similar to each other of the actual and experimentally, 107-117 Celsius versus 121-123 Celsius. Extraction method was achieved by the sample that contained benzoic acid, sodium chloride and p-nitroaniline.