Anaerobic Respiration Essay

465 Words2 Pages
Respiration is a process through which energy is released from glucose or another organic chemicals. As such, it is significant for the survival of all living organisms, whether animals or plants or microscopic bacteria. It serves two fundamental purposes in living organisms: first is the removal of the electrons generated during catabolism and second, is generation of ATP (adenosine triphosphate). Respiration occurs in two different ways, namely, aerobic and anaerobic. Aerobic respiration is oxygen-based cellular respiration that uses oxygen to generate energies through the breakdown of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. Anaerobic respiration is a form of respiration using electron acceptors to generate energy by the oxidation of nutrients and using an external electron acceptor other than oxygen. Anaerobic respiration is a common occurrence. Microbes that carry out this process are common in the environment and their activities plays a major role in the global cycling of elements such as Nitrogen, Sulfur, and Carbon. There are 5 different types of Anaerobic Respiration: 1. Nitrate Reduction and Denitrification 2. Sulfate and Sulfur Reduction 3. Methanogensis 4. Proton Reduction 5. Anoxic Hydrocarbon Oxidation The one thing that they all have in common is the use of an electron transport system in a membrane and the synthesis of ATP via ATP synthase. In both nitrate reduction and sulfate reduction there are two types of pathways, assimilatory and dissimilatory. Assimilatory pathways are methods for taking a nutrient in the soil, moving it into the cell and using it for biosynthesis of macromolecules. Dissimilatory pathways use the substrate as a place to dump electrons and generate energy. With the exception of methanogenesis these catabolic capabilities are not associated with any phylogenetic group, but are found scattered among the various
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