Diagnosis is often made after a series of abdominal x-rays, an upper gastrointestinal series, or a colonoscopy. Endoscopy tests may include flexible sigmoidoscopy which allows the doctor to directly examine the colon with a lighted tube that is inserted through the anus. The mucosal layer of intestine that absorbs nutrition contains immune cells that act like defenders of the body. When this mucosal layer breaks down, harmful bacteria enter deep layers of the intestine. This results in inflammation causing swelling, increased blood flow, and ulcerations.
If the bacteria enter the small intestine, they use their flagella to propel themselves through the lining of the intestinal wall, they produce a toxic protein. One part binds to specific carbohydrate receptors on cell-surface membrane; the toxic part enters the epithelial cells. This causes ion channels to open and Chloride ions flood into the lumen of intestine. Water then follows them into the lumen which causes watery faeces (diarrhoea) and dehydration4. Because of the improvements in sanitation and hygiene in the last 100 years, Cholera has been wiped out of England and much of the rest of the world3.
There are several types of parasites such as Ectoparasite- which is a parasite that lives on the host’s surface, examples will be hair and body lice and mites. Endoparasites – One that lives inside the host, for example heartworm, tapeworm and flatworms. Epiparasite- This one feeds on another parasite. For example, fleas and ticks. 1.2 Identify common illness and infections caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites.
In most annelids, the body temperature of the worm will change with the environment. When the temperature is low, the metabolism of the worm is reduced. The worm will move more slowly and act sluggish (VanCleave). The presence of certain chemicals affects the worms in different ways. Nicotine will make the worms go unconscious in under a minute and stay that way for several more minutes (Bely, 2009).
These infections are usually infections of the lungs or stomach and intestines. Infection with the bacteria Campylobacter jejuni is the most common. Campylobacter jejuni causes food poisoning. A few other infections that trigger GBS include: Mycoplasma, which causes pneumonia; Cytomegalovirus, which causes fever, chills, sore throat, swollen glands, body aches, and fatigue; Epstein-Barr virus, which causes mononucleosis and Varicella-zoster
pylori as well as the inflammation and ulcers that it causes. For endoscopy, the doctor inserts a flexible viewing tube (endoscope) through the mouth, down the esophagus, and into the stomach and duodenum. During endoscopy, small tissue samples (biopsies) from the stomach lining can be removed. A biopsy specimen is placed on a special slide containing urea (for example, CLO test slides). If the urea is broken down by H. pylori in the biopsy, there is a change in color around the biopsy on the slide.
Understanding Lupus (Systemic Lupus Erythematous) Takeia Foxx December 4th, 2012 EDU 100 Ms. O Lupus also called Systemic Lupus Erythematous, or SLE may not have a cure, but it’s a highly treatable condition. People who are affected by Lupus go through many complications on an everyday basis. Not only, do the patients feel pain and the family suffer as well. Lupus can be very detrimental to one’s health. Lupus medications can help lower long-term risk and keep symptoms under control.
Meth addiction harms the body in a horrific way, the drug is made up of chemicals that can kill a person also leading to the addiction, and in order to get over the drug it’s a continuous battle the person must want it for themself, and have the strength over their own mind they can’t be weak or they will fail and relapse. In the beginning use of Meth there are not many changes in appearance, but within a couple months a person’s whole appearance can be changed. The body tends to get very thin, and for most people their skin starts getting picked at leaving open wounds. The appearance can change so fast that the person may not even be recognizable. Not only does the appearance change so do the mind.
Common symptoms are acral necrosis of the extremities (such as the toes, fingers, lips and tip of the nose), high fever, nausea, vomiting, and breathing difficulty. Left untreated, Yersinia pestis can multiply rapidly in the bloodstream, possibly causing septicemic plague or even creep towards the lungs causing pneumonic plague. In order to diagnose bubonic plague, testing in the laboratory is required. Identification of the bacterium Yersinia pestis culture in a sample of serum from a patient’s blood is used for confirmation of the
Appearance isn’t the only issue, and starvation is life-threatening. The profound state of malnutrition that accompanies emaciation can either result in conditions like organ shut-down or it makes people so vulnerable to disease that they cannot fight any form of infection. (Fargo,