Part 1: Procedures in the Physical Sciences: Challenges in Measurements
1. Identify three (3) specific challenges to making direct measurements in the fields of astronomy, chemistry, physics, or earth science. Describe how scientists have utilized indirect forms of measure to overcome these challenges.
Three specific challenges in making direct measurements in the field of Astronomy are calculating distances of stars, weight and its components. The reason why calculating stars distance is difficult because the earth’s revolution around the sun stars shifts their position. To overcome these challenges, an international team of astronomers, led by Hervé Bouy from the Max Planck Institute, Garching, Germany and the Observatoire de Grenoble, France, were able for the first time measure the mass of an ultra-cool brown dwarf star. The team performed the measurements using four of the most powerful telescopes available. That was the first-ever mass measurement of an L-type star belonging to the new stellar class of very low-mass stars, discovered a few years ago. With a mass of 6.6% of the solar mass, this celestial object is observed to be lying between stars and planets in the evolutionary scheme.
2. Choose two (2) of the most historically influential tools or techniques in the physical sciences. Explain how these techniques or tools work, and how they helped to advance our understanding of the physical sciences.
Part 2: Procedures in the Physical Sciences: A Survey of Safety
3. Choose one (1) hazard associated with research in the physical sciences. Discuss how protective gear or equipment might be used to mitigate the hazard, as well as its efficacy.
4. Describe the ways in which advancements in the physical sciences might impact the safety of the global community. Assess any special considerations for regulating this research.