Welfare and Social Policy 1 Discuss the reasons for the increase in social legislations in the 1830s and 1840s. According to Midwinter (1994) Britain changed profoundly in the nineteenth-century, witnessing adverse effects politically, economically and socially. With Classical liberal ideologies being the order of the day the country was very much under the influence of laissez-faire principles, extolled by the economic writer Adam Smith (1723-93). During this time Britain became powerful gradually moving from a rural feudal system to a nation of industrialisation simultaneously experiencing great poverty in areas as a result of urbanisation and industrialisation. The period also witnessed a change in the ways of thinking about politics, the economy and society.
This could be because of two things: the war or the unsustainability of his policies. First of all, the war would have most definitely affected coal output as lots of workers would have been taken from their workstations and drafted into the army. On the other hand, it is more likely that the dip from 35.4 million tonnes to 33.8 million tonnes is a consequence of his loans from foreign investors, such as Britain. This is supported by the rate of industrial growth in Russia from 1890-99 the annual average growth rate was 8% an increase from 6.1% in the years 1885-89 but, 1900-06 it was 1.4% a severe decrease, which can
The act was passed because the inadequacy of the current system was obvious, especially as the industrial revolution had hit Britain and towns were growing rapidly, leading to an increase in crime rate. For these reasons Peel decided to create to metropolitan police force. This administrative structure created served as a model fir the urban& rural police forces that we established in mid 1830’s. Furthermore as home secretary Peel also reformed the Penal code by removing the death penalty for over 180 crimes and introduced the Gaols Act (1823) as an attempt to improve the foul conditions of the prisons and increase efficiency of the system; he also repealed the Combinations act. The most important part of his career as home secretary would undoubtedly be his support to pass Catholic Emancipation in 1829.
In 1837 Disraeli was elected to parliament and became a leader of a Tory splinter group called ‘Young England’. This group consisted of young Tory idealists who wanted to bridge the gap between the rich and the poor. This already tells us that Benjamin already believed that there were social divisions. He then wrote his novel ‘Sybil’ and in this book it tells us of the social divisions. ‘As if they were dwellers in different zones, or inhabitants of different planets’ this is an extract from his book and this gives an understanding of how large he thought the gap was between the different classes.
Did Life Improve During the Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution was a series of changes in the 18th and 19th century that affected the way that most people lived in Britain. Some of these changes could be seen as positive, such as the building of a railway network which improved transport significantly, but some of these changes could be seen as negative, such as the building of factories which increased the amount of pollution in large cities. There were many medical advances during the Industrial Revolution. For example, in 1796, Edward Jenner developed the first vaccine for smallpox. This was significant because smallpox had a mortality rate of up to 35% so this vaccination would have saved a lot of lives and it would have made life considerably better for those who could afford to be vaccinated.
the industrial revolution meant that by the nineteenth century Britain no longer relied on slave trade to such an extent. Another consideration is the role of the enlightenment on the British people, the concept of slavery no longer fit the morality of the people, this feeling was reinforced by anti-slavery campaigning and the increasing unrest amongst the slaves. Fundamental to the debate to what the most significant factor in securing the freedom of slaves could be argued to be the relative importance of economic factors in precipitating abolition1. Firstly lets recognize that the limitations of slave labour in terms of economic prosperity has been acknowledged by historians as a factor contributing to the emancipation in 1833. Adam Smith observed that slaves were ‘very seldom inventive’, his theory suggests that slaves were inherently inefficient2.
Effectively the act benefited the middle classes, who were now given an electoral voice in parliament, while the working classes were largely ignored, causing widespread anger and resentment for the act, and all those it benefited. The huge number of working classes wanted to be represented, and the act was yet more salt in the wound. If you were to gather up dates for the most widespread Chartist appreciation in Britain and put this on a graph alongside the economies peaks and troughs, the results would no doubt roughly mirror each other. For Chartism excelled during times of economic disturbance, particularly the late 30’s. This ran alongside the blossoming industrialisation of Britain, areas such as Stockport and Cheshire undergoing radical change were often the strongest supports of Chartism.
Its here that Paul Johnson focuses in his book A Shopkeepers Millennium. Johnson tells how the economic changes from 1815-1837, the height of the movement, had a major impact on the society of Rochester. He uses city records to outline and support the reasons for the political, social, and religious changes in Rochester throughout this time. Johnson makes many points about how he believes the change I the economical structure of the country. In the first chapter of the book, He describes Rochester as being a place where town and country meant different things (Johnson,16).
Stalin recognised that the industrial revolutions which, had made Western Europe and Northern America so strong, had been based on iron and steel production. If the USSR were to drive towards modernisation, Stalin believed this heavy Industry had to have a role somewhere. The first FYP was from October 1929 to December 1932; the second FYP was from January 1933 to December 1937; the third FYP was from January 1938 to June 1941. Throughout these 3 Five Year Plans the priorities can be seen to have changed in some cases drastically in others more realistically, however there was underlining element emphasized throughout all 3 FYP’s being on ‘Heavy Industry’. Stalin in his speech to the Industrial Managers in Feb 1931 expresses how vital it is for the USSR to create Heavy Industry and not move ‘backwards’.
To understand the resurgence in hand production in the first decade of the 21st century, it is helpful to understand the role that hand production played in earlier industrial reform movements. Prior to the industrial revolution in the mid-18th century, everything was made by hand. As western economies moved from agriculture to industry and workers moved from rural to urban settings, the unregulated conditions in factories became a serious social issue. In the late 19th century labor reform joined other reform movements, such as temperance, abolition (in the U.S.), and universal suffrage, which sought a more equitable social contract. Skilled tradesmen found advocates in labor reformers (Karl Marx and William Morris notable among them), who championed cottage industry and hand production as antithetical to the perils and impersonality of factory life.