Magness explains that, “archeology is not an exact science because it involves human behavior...[which] includes the variable of interpretation”(Mangess 14). She says this to clarify to her audience that the reason there is controversy over Qumran is because there are different interpretations of the evidence. Throughout the first chapter she lays the ground work for her argument by prefacing it with background of herself and the archeologist who originally excavated Qumran: Roland de Vaux. Magness states that, “although [she] believe[s] that de Vaux was correct in identifying Qumran as a sectarian settlement, [she] disagree[s] with him on some matters such as the dating of the occupation phases of the site”(Mangess 16). Magness also tells her audience that she is going to take the evidence from the archeology of the site and from outside sources, and will interpret it as objectively as possible.
Analyse the ways history and memory generate compelling and unexpected insights. In your response, make detailed reference to your prescribed text and at least ONE other related text of your own choosing. History and memory are both multifaceted ideas that are challenged continually. History is often perceived as fact, in the recount of an event or retelling of a story that did in fact, take place. Through study however, it becomes clear that history is a consequence of memory, which makes it unreliable and changed by circumstance.
Analysis of Passage from Trouillot’s Silencing the Past: Power and the Production of History “The knowledge that narrators assume about their audience limits both their use of the archives and the context within which their story finds significance. To contribute to new knowledge and to add new significance, the narrator must both acknowledge and contradict the power embedded in previous understandings. This chapter itself exemplifies the point. My narrative of the Haitian Revolution assumed both a certain way of reading history and the reader’s greater knowledge of French than of Haitian history. Whether or not these assumptions were correct, they reflect a presumption about the unevenness of historical power” (Trouillot 56).
Also this gave the civilians that were conquered adaptability to the religion. Unlike the Christians, who converted their conquered civilians by force. Another method that Islam gradually spread was through the use of one of their main pillars pilgrimage. Coming back from Makah, pilgrims would bring back the knowledge and the wisdom. Therefore this shows a passive method of spread, which encouraged the individuals in their homelands to convert to Islam.
They make their living off their biases, questionable practices, and not falsifiable claims that barely have any scientific evidence behind them. I would go to a scientist if I had a problem that needed to be solved because scientists try to put aside all their biases to help to solve the problem at hand. There are many different biases that affect our decision making process. Some of these biases include the emotional fallacy and representative heuristic. A scientist knows these biases and they find different ways to overcome them.
Key Words: Ethnography, Development, Anthropology, Post Modernism, Fieldwork. own views, one’s own cultural ethos and it is through these that he interprets the culture under study (not that they consider auto-ethnography to be the ultimate solution). Therefore the study of other cultures cannot be objective. There is bound to be bias in this search for meaning of the other culture and as such the claim of ethnographic writings about telling the truth is a fallacy. They make a clarion call for deconstruction and the need for a new understanding of representation in knowing the truth about a culture.
In order to fully appreciate the importance of this process, the history that led to its inclusion in research projects must be understood. Although informed consent is designed to make sure that a participant fully understands the procedures, beneﬁts, and risks involved in an experiment, it is not without its ﬂaws in its practical application. There are many covert communication barriers between participants and researchers that lead to misunderstandings. This prevents participants from making the fully autonomous decisions sought for in the informed consent process. Some of those barriers are related to cultural aspects such as language diﬀerences and religious dogma.
Do you think it’s easier to instill Christian morals or Islamic law into the political system of a county? Justify your answer. It is easier to instill a set of morals into a system rather than enforcing a political system to conform to one religious belief which is the centralized focus of Islamic law. Furthermore, Christian morals are viewed as simplistic because of the liberty to conscience. What helped our forefathers create a great nation and form a government were their principles and ethical sense of right and wrong.
The oppression of individuals transcends throughout many historical eras. Many instances occur because of the misuse of power, which compromises an individual’s integrity. It is the wishful thinking of society that individuals are educated about oppression to avoid more of these incidents, yet many countries still face racial and cultural barriers. In the essay “The Metropolis and Mental Life”, Georg Simmel states, “the deepest problems of modern life flow from the attempt of the individual to maintain the independence and individuality of his existence against the sovereign powers of society, against the weight of the historical heritage and the external culture and technique of life.” (Simmel, The Metropolis and Mental Life p. 316). Simmel’s ideology portrays culture’s ability to oppress individuals due to the effects of social norms and the abuse of power.
In today’s modern society, self image is one of the strongest factors in what makes up our culture. This theory will be shown through key topics such as Self-Knowledge, Self-Esteem and Self-Deception. To begin, we will dive into some main ideas about The Self and it’s functions. This will be a brief overview of an the analysis that we will soon challenge. The Self is not a topic that is clearly defined in black and white, and many researchers still argue about the understanding of exactly what it is.