An alternate name for Complex Q is Ubiquinone. The importance of CoQ is that not only does it accept electrons from NADH dehydrogenase complex (A.K.A Complex 1) but it can also accept electrons from Complex 2 (A.K.A succinate dehydrogenase). Succinate is one of the intermediate products in the citric acid cycle. Succinate dehydrogenase acts on succinate to create fumarate in the citric acid cycle. In the
CHEMISTRY HOMEWORK 1. All of the statements concerning the carbonyl group in aldehydes and ketones are true except A) the bond is polar, with a slight negative charge on the oxygen atom. B) the bond angles about the central carbon atom are 120°. C) the carbonyl group is planar. D) in condensed form the carbonyl group can be written as -CHO.
Zinc Chloride acts as the catalyst in the reaction. In some condition, heat supply is needed in the reaction. Alkyl halide can be prepared from alcohol by reacting them with a hydrogen halide, HX (X=Cl,Br, or I). The mechanism of acid catalyzed substitution of alcohols are termed SN1 and SN2, where “S” stands for substitution while sub-“N” stands for nucleophilic, and the number “1” and “2” is described as first order and second order respectively. The “1” or “2” is also represent the reaction is unimolecular or bimolecular reaction.
A diene is the 4-pi-electron component. It is electron-rich. The 2-pi-electron component is called a dienophile. Dienophile contain relatively electron-poor double bonds. Because the reaction is concerted, bond breaking and bond forming take place in the same step- the stereochemistry of the reactants and the symmetry of their molecular orbitals control the stereochemistry of the products.
In the reaction, two new σ bonds are formed and one π bond is formed at the expense of two π bonds, which results in a cyclic product. Diels-Alder reactions are pericyclic reactions, which are ones that take place in a single step, without intermediates, and that involve the flow or redistribution of bonding electrons. The reaction proceeds through a cyclic transition state and is concerted, meaning bonds in the transition state are simultaneously made or broken. The Diels-Alder reaction is facilitated when the dienophile is the substituted with electron-withdrawing groups such as nitriles, amines, and carbonyls and when it reacts with dienes that contain electron-donating groups like alkyls and alkoxys groups. Diel’s Alder reactions have unique characteristics and requirements.
Molecular weight influences how strong the intermolecular forces can be. This because as the molecular weight increases, the surface area increases as well, making it more difficult to break the molecules apart (creating a stronger bond and a higher boiling and melting point). Experimental: The distillation apparatus was assembled as per page 2 of this lab report. An unknown solid, sample B, was collected and placed into
Synthesizing Cyclohexene by Dehydrating Cyclohexanol Abstract 12.0mL of 85% phosphoric acid, 10.0mL of cyclohexanol and heat were used to perform an alcohol dehydration reaction and produce 5.85g of cyclohexene. The percent yield was found to be 74.84% after being washed with 10% sodium carbonate and dried with anhydrous Na2SO4. IR was used, along with a bromine test to confirm the identity of the newly formed cyclohexene. Introduction In organic chemistry, many different functional groups exist that have tendencies to react with each other in specific ways. Four main types of reactions relevant to this experiment are uni/di-molecular nucleophilic substitution (SN1 and SN2) and uni/di-molecular elimination (E1 and E2).
3. Oxidation of p-methylacetanilide. Here the methyl group on p-methylaniline is oxidized with potassium permanganate to transform the methyl group into a carboxyl-group and ultimate create p-acetamidobenzoic acid. 4. Hydrolysis of p-acetamidobenzoic acid will transform the amide group into an amine group and will create the amino acid p-aminobenzoic acid.
We can use the same principal we used for the first experiment, Manganese dioxide is not a protein, not an enzyme, it is a catalyst. Due to this, no products are formed, and just as we anticipated, the reaction rate was given a 0. 3. The 3rd experiment is a mixture of 2 mL H2O2 and liver. In this situation, both the substrate (H2O2) and the enzyme (catalase) are present, and
The final crude product yield was 0.91g and the pure product yield was 0.36g. Error may have occurred during the extraction phase. Although I extracted twice with Sodium Chloride, if waste was not completely removed, it would affect the purity of the product. The distillation process may have also affected the pure product. The lab manual recommended that 0.5mL of waste be removed during distillation; otherwise it would affect the purity of the product.