Principal Psychological Perspectives. Essay

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P1: Explain the principal psychological perspectives. The Behaviourist Perspective: With the behaviourist perspective they believe that all behaviour is learnt through conditioning. This includes the working Pavlov (Classical Conditioning) and Skinner (Operant Conditioning). The behaviourist perspective looks to understand human behaviour in terms of what has been learnt. The behaviourist perspective believes that our behaviour is the result of operant or classical conditioning; both of these explain behaviour as being a direct result of learning. Classical conditioning was developed by Ivan Pavlov. He conducted an experiment that involved dogs. Because dogs salivate, this is an involuntary reflexive response to the sight of smell of food. Pavlov set up an experiment where he introduced a bell at meal times; this was the neutral stimulus (NS). To begin with the dog did not salivate when the bell was rung because it meant nothing to them. Pavlov then began presenting the food, the unconditioned stimulus (UCS), after he had rung the bell, the neutral stimulus (NS) and the response from the dog was to salivate but it had not yet recognised and linked the presentation of the food with the sound of the bell, this was his unconditioned response (UCR). He continued to do this until the dog had built a link between the two. This is called an association. The dog built up an association between the onset of the stimulus and presentation of the food. This meant that when the dog heard the bell (the NS) he knew the food would follow shortly afterwards. Once Pavlov had built up this association and proved that the dog had learnt this behaviour through conditioning he then used the extinction to get rid of the dogs association between the bell and food. Social Learning Perspective The social learning approach was developed by Albert Bandura. He states that we learn by
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