Q. Evaluate the effectiveness of the strategies and tactics used by the opposing sides during the Second Indochina War It is clear that from the various strategies and tactics used during the Second World War, that the communist North were far more effective than those of the US and ARVN forces. The communist North was predominantly fighting for nationhood and independence, and thus sustained a remarkably high morale throughout the war. Both the NVA and the VC utilised effective strategies and tactics, especially the decision to combine guerrilla warfare with more conventional strategies. On the other hand, the US and ARVN forces were less effective in using strategies and tactics as they were not accustomed to the terrain, and their conventional
Since the North Vietnamese had the initiative instead of the U.S., it was possible for their elaborate campaign of deception to succeed in maintaining the element of surprise, even though the U.S. discovered numerous details of the attack to come. After General Westmoreland took over command in Vietnam, he decided that far more American combat involvement was necessary to enable the struggling South Vietnamese military to resist the more disciplined and organized Communists. The general had gained approval for the buildup of troops because American troops seemed to be winning most of their battles with the North Vietnamese and the Communist guerrillas in South Vietnam. Westmorland’s idea was to use superior American force, supported by overwhelming air bombardment and artillery fire, not to seize or hold territory but to kill enemy soldiers in their jungle
Moreover, USA also sent troops in Vietnam. For non-military interventions, it is possible to explain US policy in Taiwan and Japan. In 1950, North Korea invaded South Korea. From this point, the US sent troops in South Korea in order to ‘contain’ the spread of Communism : thsi intervention is often seen as the first one concerning the containment policy. On the surface, this war can be seen as a success for the United States as Communist forces were maintained on the north of the 38th parallel.
Communist aggression was the most important reason because without the original assault by North Korea there would’ve been no war, merely suspicion on the US’ part regarding Stalin and other Communist nations’ activities. Another reason for the outbreak of the Korean war in 1950 was the ambiguity of the US’ foreign policy. The US were very contradictory about their objectives prior to the war and at different stages throughout
This means that the US would have to support South Korea against the Communist North Koreans. Another document which had a significant effect on the US’s desire to contain Communism was NSC-68. The fundamental aim of NSC-68 was to contain the Soviet threat by increasing the defence expenditure and rolling back the Soviet drive for world domination. The recommendations of the report rejected isolation and appeasement on the grounds that it would encourage Soviet aggression. NSC-68 provided the doctrinal justification for US intervention in Korea.
McNamera and the Vietnam War McNamera, former secretary of defense for the United States, learned eleven huge lessons from his involvement in the wars of the wars of the 20th century. Several of these lessons were applied in his approach to the Vietnam War, while others failed to be successfully used. The first of these lessons, to empathize with the enemy, was unfortunately dismissed in this war. The United States, with over 500,000 troops alone, believed that they could easily overpower North Vietnam’s fighting force of fewer than 300,000. The United States, however, did not count on just how intense Vietnamese nationalism was.
Staling needed to distract the US from the Soviet Union and therefore hinted at Kim that he should invade the south. Korea was not in the defensive perimeter strategy set by Dean Acheson in January 1950. It was viewed as a third world country and posted no real threat to America. However at the time there was a ‘Red Scare’ which was a result of McCarthyism and dislike towards the communists. Therefore when the north invaded the south the US felt as though they needed to intervene because they could not let communism spread.
The Prague Spring which Czechoslovakia was to invade on was important for the Soviet Union as it was again able to put down a revolution for reforms against the strict communism employed. The Korean War was beneficial to both countries and no ground was obtained in either’s attempt to spread either communism or democracy. The Tet offensive was beneficial to the soviets as North Vietnamese showed that they could fight against the U.S. in open fields and conventional warfare which was the beginning of the end for the U.S. in Vietnam. The bombing of the Ho Chi Minh Trail was helpful for the Soviet Union as the bombing destabilized the neighboring Cambodia. The overthrow of Ferdinand Marcos was a victory for the U.S. as it lead to democratic elections in which Corazon Aquino was elected.
His responsibility was to ensure the security of the United States of America. It was clear that allowing the USSR to establish a first strike capability in a short period of time would only lead to them taking advantage of the situation and attack the United States. An attack was NOT in the best interests of America’s security interests. Therefore, he did his job. Although instead of taking the military’s advice, and launching an invasion, Kennedy does deserve credit for the innovative approach of the blockade.
The policy became successful because the United States financed the resistance movement with a small amount of money, while the Soviets had to use more resources and suffered more losses of their military. The justifications of the policy were to eliminate tyrannical governments and promote individual liberties,